Psych Midterm Quizlet (Help Me)

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Dependent variable

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132 Terms

1

Dependent variable

The variable affected by the independent variable.

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Control group

The group in which the experiment is not applied to.

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3

Random sampling

When a sample is selected at random to reduce possible biases.

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4

Longitudinal study

A study which observes subjects over a long period of time.

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5

Correlation

As one variable increases, the other increases.

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Negative correlation

As one variable increases the other decreases.

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Experimental method

Explores cause and effect by manipulating one or more factors..

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8

Random assignment

When samples are assigned to random testing groups.

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9

Standard deviation

The average distance from a point to the mean value of a set of points. (Higher range = higher deviation)

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10

Ethics

Privacy, Protection, Confidentiality, Withdrawal, Consent, Freedom from deception, Debrief.

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12

Myelin sheath

Protects the axon and allows for a faster signal to be sent.

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13

All-or-none response

A neuron either fires or it doesn’t

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14

Endorphins

Inhibitory Reduces Pain

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15

Agonist

Mimic the shape of a neurotransmitter in order to elicit a response by attaching to the receptors that neurotransmitters cling onto.

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Sympathetic nervous system

Fight and flight

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17

Magnetic resonance imaging

Uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create an image which helps determine structure.

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18

Right hemisphere

emotional, visual, creative, simple requests.

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19

Frontal lobe

Judgment, new memories, speaking, and personality.

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20

Temporal lobe

Faces and auditory comprehension, Werenke’s area: Speech production

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21

Parietal lobe

Sensory input is processed here

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22

Sensory cortex (most/least sensitive areas)

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.

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23

Thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum

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medulla

Base of the Brainstem control heart rate and breathing

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25

Limbic system

Controls emotions such as fear and aggression

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26

Reticular formation/activating system

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

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27

The endocrine system

creates long-term effects using different glands, which in turn produce Hormones through the bloodstream.

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29

Twin studies

used to assess the relative contributions of heredity and environment to some attribute.

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30

Natural Selection

The idea coined by Charles Darwin states that the biological and physical traits that lead to an organism's increased survival and reproduction will be the traits that will eventually be passed onto future generations.

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32

Rooting reflex

is an innate reflex where the baby turns its mouth towards where its face is touched.

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33

Sensorimotor (Birth - 2)

views the world through senses, lack of obj permanence, stranger anxiety, Schema Development

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34

Preoperational (2-7)

Development of language, egocentrism, theory of mind, animism, artificialism, developing understanding of literal and figurative language.

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35

Concrete (7-11)

conservation and reversal

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Formal (11- infinity)

abstract and hypothetical thinking.

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37

Object permanence

The ability to know an object exists despite it being out of direct line of sight.

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38

Assimilation

New object is put in an already existing schema.

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39

Harry Harlow

Wires vs blanket experiment: Nourishment did not lead to attachment, but instead comfort and touch did.

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40

Mary Ainsworth

Strange situation experiment. Children were left in a room alone with a stranger after the parents returned. Highlighted different types of Attachment.

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41

Authoritarian Parent Style

command with no explanation or reasoning => Low Self Esteem

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42

Permissive Parent Style

Loose and lacks demands => Immature child

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43

Authoritative Parent Style

Explanations of why rules in place, allows for some conflict in regards to rules => Higher Self Esteem

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44

Kohlberg: Preconventional

Obidence to avoid punishment or gain reward, reciprocity.

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Kohlberg: Conventional

Follows laws, wants to be socially approved of and avoid social disapproval, honor vs guilt

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46

Kohlberg: Postconventional

Universal agreed principals, might see some rules as “improper”. Some rules can be broken.

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47

Erkison: Trust v. Mistrust

Needs affection for secure attachment. Neglect leads to trust issues

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48

Erksion: Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt

Independence and control (potty training). Leads to confidence and independence.

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49

Erikson: Initiative v. Guilt

Social development, lack of social interaction leads to lower confidence

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50

Erkison: Industry v. inferiority

competence and self-esteem, lack of sense of competence may lead to esteem issues.

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51

Erkison: Identity v. Role confusion

Role and identity formation, failure leads to weak sense of self.

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52

Erkison: Intimacy and Isolation

development of strong relationships, lack of can lead to isolation.

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53

Erkison: Generative & Stagnation

Create and nurture outlasting things (family). Success leads to feelings of usefulness.

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54

Erkison: Ego Identity v.despair

reflection on life

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55

Continuity vs. stages

The continuity theory says that development is a gradual, continuous process. On the other hand, the discontinuity theory says that development occurs in a series of distinct stages.

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58

Absolute threshold

Minimum amount of stimulation to trigger a response 50% of the time.

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Difference threshold

The minimum difference between two stimuli for a person to notice a distiction.

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60

Priming

a technique in which the introduction of one stimulus influences how people respond to a subsequent stimulus.

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61

Sensory adaptation

Diminishing sensitivity to a repeating stimulus.

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62

Order of Vision

Cornea, Iris, Pupil, Lens, Retina, Optic Nerve

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Vision: Corena

Outer layer

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64

Vision: Iris

Controls amount of light in eye

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Vision: Pupil

Light enters through

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Vision: Lens

Changes shape to focus light on the retina

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Vision: Retina

Sensitive to light and contains photo receptors

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68

-

-

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Vision: Rods

Peripheral vision, dim light seeing, reduced color sensitivity

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Vision: Cones

Center of the fovea and assist in color seeing.

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Vision: Optic Nerve

Sends signals to the thalamus and to the visual cortex.

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Accommodation

is the changing of the shape of the lens to focus light to the retina.

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73

Color blindness

Loss of certain receptors relating to opponent process and Tri-Color theory

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74

Opponent-process theory

Receptors see colors in pairings (Red & Green, Blue & Yellow, White & Black)

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75

Order of Hearing

Auditory canal, Eardrum, Cochela, Oval Window, Basilar membrane

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76

Hearing: Eardrum

vibrates to sound

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Hearing: Cochela

transduces sound through the tiny bones and hair cells

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Hearing: Basilar membrane

Contains hair cells

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79

Gate-control theory

Spinal chords have “gates” where pain can flow through.

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80

Taste receptors

Contain different receptors for different tastes

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81

Frequency

High frequency = higher pitch, higher amplitude = higher volume.

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82

Semicircular canals

Fluid-filled and assist with the vestibular sense.

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Selective attention

Ability to only pay attention to one aspect of a stimulus at a time.

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85

Gestalt

Organization of information to form a whole.

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86

Closure

Tendency for a person to fill in the gaps in an object.

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87

Eleanor Gibson/visual cliff

Highlighted how depth perception is an innate skill born in infants.

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88

Binocular Cue: Retinal disparity

images from eyes differ.

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89

Binocular Cue: Convergence

Eyes move towards each other as an object appears closer

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90

Monocular Cue: Relative Size

Further obj appears smaller due to a smaller retinal image despite being the same size

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91

Monocular Cue: Interpositon

Objs that occlude others are seen as closer.

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92

Monocular Cue: Relative clarity

light from further objects appears hazy.

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93

Monocular Cue: Texture Gradient

Objects with less more fine textures are perceived to be farther away.

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94

Phi phenomenon

Flashing lights at a certain speed makes it appear as if a single light is moving.

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95

Size constancy

a cognitive mechanism that allows us to perceive an object as having the same size even when seen at different distances.

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97

Circadian rhythm

our internal clock, controlling our temperature and wakefulness in 24-hour cycles.

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98

REM sleep

the stage of sleep in which we dream. As the name suggests, our eyes move rapidly in different directions while in this stage. Beta Waves, pseudo sleep

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100

Classical conditioning

The process of repeatedly pairing an original (unconditioned) stimulus, which naturally produces a reflexive (unconditioned) response, with a new (neutral) stimulus, such that the new stimulus produces the same response.

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