Bio Unit 3: DNA

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DNA

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38 Terms

1

DNA

genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents

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2

histone

protein that helps condense DNA

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3

nucleotide

subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base

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4

phosphate

chemical compound that contains phosphorus; makes up the DNA backbone

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5

nitrogen bases

adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil

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6

adenine

nitrogen base that pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA

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7

thymine

nitrogen base that pairs with adenine (found in DNA)

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8

guanine (G)

nitrogen base that pairs with cytosine

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9

cytosine (C)

nitrogen base that pairs with guanine

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10

double helix

the appearance/physical structure of double-stranded DNA

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11

hydrogen bonds

the bond that connects two complementary nitrogen bases

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12

anti-parallel

the two strands of DNA run in opposite directions of 3’ to 5’ or 5’ to 3’

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13

replication bubble

an open region of DNA where DNA replication occurs; created by the separation of two strands from the helicase enzyme

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14

leading strand

DNA strand created by the DNA polymerase that has a continuous path

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15

lagging strand

DNA strand created by the DNA polymerase that is interrupted and built in small sections (Okazaki Fragments)

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16

helicase

DNA replication enzyme that unwinds the DNA by breaking hydrogen bonds; creates a replication bubble and fork

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17

primase

DNA replication enzyme that adds small sequences of primer so the DNA polymerase knows where to go

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18

ligase

DNA replication enzyme that glues Okazaki Fragments together and reconnects the hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases

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19

DNA polymerase

DNA replication enzyme that creates complementary bases to the original DNA strand; forms the leading and lagging strands

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20

RNA

single stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose

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21

mRNA (messenger RNA)

type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cells

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22

tRNA (transfer RNA)

type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis

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23

RNA polymerase

enzyme that links together the growing chains of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template

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24

transcription

synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA molecule

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25

intron

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

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26

exon

expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

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27

protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair

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28

amino acid

compound with an amino group on one end and a carbozyl group on the other

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29

ribosome

cell organelle of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis

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30

translation

process by which the sequence of bases of mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids for a protein

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31

codon

group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein

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32

anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA

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33

mutation

change in the genetic material of a cell

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34

point mutation

gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed

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35

chromosomal mutation

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36

frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the “reading frame” of the genetic message by intersecting or deleting a nucleotide

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37

gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from the parent to offspring

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38

central dogma

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