Unit 3: Cultural Patterns and Processes

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20th century

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123 Terms

1

20th century

Modern means architecture developed during the ________ that expresses geometric, ordered forms.

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main prayer

Almost all mosques are built on an angle that places the ________ area toward Mecca.

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3

small number

There are a(n) ________ of major language families represented by the early or prehistoric language roots.

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4

Temples

________ in Southeast Asia tend to have several towers with thin pointed spires that point outward at an angle.

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5

Koran and Hadith

Not all Middle- Eastern states are republics or monarchies that abide by Sharia, or Islamic law, based on the ________.

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6

single government

State: a population represented by a(n) ________.

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7

Culture

the shared experience, traits, and activities of a group of people who have a common heritage

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8

Cultural synthesis (syncretism)

the blending together of two or more cultural influences

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9

EX

Country music is often thought of as a product of American culture and is strongly tied to folk music traditions

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10

Modern and contemporary architecture

when new buildings are constructed using innovative designs

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11

(EX

the rectangular steel and glass skyscrapers built in the 1970s-1980s)

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12

incorporates green energy technologies, recycled materials, or nontraditional materials (EX

metal sheeting on the exterior)

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13

Postmodern

a category within contemporary that means that the design abandons the use of blocky rectilinear shapes in favor of wavy, crystalline, or bending shapes in the form of the home or building

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14

New England

small one-story pitched-roof Cape Cod style or the irregular roof Saltbox with one long pitched roof in front and a sort of low-angle roof in back

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15

Federalist or Georgian

refers to the housing styles of the late 1700s and early 1800s in Anglo-America

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16

often two

or three-story urban townhomes connected to one another

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17

The I-house

a loose form of Federalist and Georgian influence on the average family home in the United States and Canada

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18

fireplaces on each end of the house and an even

pitched roof

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19

Christian

traditional houses of worship tend to have a central steeple or two high bell towers in the front of the building

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20

Hindu

temples and shrines tend to have a rectangular-shaped main body and feature one or more short towers of carved stone

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21

Buddhist

temples and shrines vary depending on which Buddhist tradition is followed in the region

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22

Temples and shrines in China and Japan feature one

or two-story buildings with large, curved, winged roof

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23

Islamic

mosques can take a variety of forms, though many have central domes

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24

Judaic

there is not a common architectural design style to synagogues

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25

monolingual

knowing one language only

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26

Canada is bilingual because there are two official languages

English and French

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27

(EX

the English spoken by English people and Australian people sounds similar, there is a distinct "strain" of English spoken in Australia)

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28

received pronunciation

Kings English or "posh" English

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29

Cockney English

the language of the working-class areas of the East London docklands and surrounding neighborhoods, which sounds distinctly not posh

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30

Cockney rhyming slang

an odd but humorous use of code phrases to describe everyday situations

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31

Anatolian theory

a group of migrants from the Indian subcontinent, and their language, were for some time concentrated in the peninsula that makes up most of present-day Turkey

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32

Kurgan theory

the same group of migrants from the Indian subcontinent instead made their way into Central Asia, and then migrated across the Eurasian stepped into Central and Western Europe, taking their language with them

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33

folk music

music that is original to a specific culture

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34

karma

the balance between good and evil deeds in life, determines the outcome of reincarnation

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35

Abrahamic Tradition

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

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36

Islamic States

Theocracy, Sharia, and Secular Governance

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37

theocracies

religious leaders hold the senior positions of governance

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38

(EX

Iran has a supreme religious council that serves as the head of state and can overrule the elected parliament and president)

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39

secular

not directly governed in a religious manner and, instead, often utilize French or British legal tradition and government structure

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40

Theocracy

Iran, formerly Afghanistan under the Taliban

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41

folklore

collected stories, spoken-word histories and writings that are specific to a culture and tell the societal histories and morality tales that define a cultures ethical foundations

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42

(EX

Aesops fables are an example of folklore from the classical Greeks

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43

(EX

In many parts of the Americas, a folklore has been built around the life and travels of Christopher Columbus

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44

long-lot patterns

a narrow frontage along a road or waterway with a very long lot shape behind

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45

The Caucasoid or Indo-European

with light to dark skin tone, medium body type, and wavy hair shaft

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46

the Negroid or African

with a dark skin tone, medium body shape, and a curly hair shaft

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47

possibilism

the revised concept proposed by Sauer and other like-minded geographers that stated cultures were to a partial degree shaped by their environment and the material resources available to them

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48

lebensraum

the living space for each distinct nation was based upon the optimal physical geography of the culture group

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49

neo-Nazism

based on violent racism against non-whites and immigrants or violet expression of xenophobia

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50

ethnocentrism

the belief in the superiority of ones nation or ethnic group, and in the inferiority of other nations or ethnic groups

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51

cultural relativism

the idea that an individuals beliefs and activities can only be understood in the context of that persons culture

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52

internal identity

used by individuals to express their cultural heritage, ethnicity, or place of origin to people who share their heritage or place of origin

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53

external identity

used by individuals to express their cultural heritage, ethnicity, or place of origin to people who do not share a common cultural or geographic background

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54

culture regions

an area of bounded space with a homogeneous characteristic that can be one or more components of culture

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55

fuzzy borders

cultural regions tend to have this because its hard to tell where one cultural region ends and another begins

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56

(EX

where Dixie ends and the American Northeast or Midwest begins)

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57

Colonialism

though the Mormon church that began in Utah, it spread itself around the world via mandatory missions conducted by its young members

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58

Conflict

or war, often sees soldiers and armies invading or even occupying foreign cultures

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59

Migration

immigrants carry their own culture to their new country and blend them with preexisting bits of culture

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60

ethnic cleansing

where people of one ethnic group are eliminated by another, often under threat of violence or death

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61

(EX

The former Yugoslavia was created as a state during the post-World War I Treaty of Versailles in 1919

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62

genocide

a large-scale systematic killing of people of one ethnic group

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63

(EX

the Holocaust of Jews at the hands of the Nazis in World War II when six million were killed)

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64

culture

the shared experience, traits, and activities of a group of people who have a common heritage

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65

cultural synthesis (syncretism)

the blending together of two or more cultural influences

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66

modern/contemporary architecture

when new buildings are constructed using innovative designs

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67

postmodern

a category within contemporary that means that the design abandons the use of blocky rectilinear shapes in favor of wavy, crystalline, or bending shapes in the form of the home or building

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68

New England housing type

small one-story pitched-roof Cape Cod style or the irregular roof Saltbox with one long pitched roof in front and a sort of low-angle roof in back

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69

Federalist or Georgian housing type

the housing styles of the late 1700s and early 1800s in Anglo-America

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70

the I-house

a loose form of Federalist and Georgian influence on the average family home in the United States and Canada

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71

Christian buildings

traditional houses of worship tend to have a central steeple or two high bell towers in the front of the building

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72

Hindu buildings

temples and shrines tend to have a rectangular-shaped main body and feature one or more short towers of carved stone

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73

Buddhist buildings

temples and shrines vary depending on which Buddhist tradition is followed in the region

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74

Islamic buildings

mosques that can take a variety of forms, though many have central domes

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75

Judaic buildings

there is not a common architectural design style to synagogues.

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76

monolingual

a person who knows only one language

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77

bilingual

a person who speaks two languages fluently

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78

received pronunciation

the approved pronunciation of British English; originally based on the King's English as spoken at public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge Universities

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79

Cockney English

the language of the working-class areas of the East London docklands and surrounding neighborhoods, which sounds distinctly not posh

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80

Cockney rhyming slang

an odd but humorous use of code phrases to describe everyday situations

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81

Pidgin languages

simplified forms of the language that use key vocabulary words and limited grammar

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82

nouvelle cuisine

Spanish, Italian, and French cooking that uses light sauces and tries to bring out the natural flavors of foods instead of making heavy use of butter and cream

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83

Hindu-Buddhist Tradition

Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism

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84

Kshatriya

a member of the royal or warrior Hindu caste

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85

Vaishya

a member of the merchant and professional caste

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86

Shudra

a member of the farmer, laborer, and artisan caste

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87

Dalit

the lowest position in the system who were considered "unholy"

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88

theocracies

where religious leaders hold the senior positions of governance

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89

secular

not directly governed in a religious manner and, instead, often utilize French or British legal tradition and government structure

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90

Five Pillars of Islam

key Islamic practices that are regarded as required acts of devotion for all Muslims and are emphasized by the Koran

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91

folklore

collected stories, spoken-word histories and writings that are specific to a culture and tell the societal histories and morality tales that define a culture’s ethical foundations

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92

long-lot patterns

a narrow frontage along a road or waterway with a very long lot shape behind

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93

land use

how property is utilized, shared, or divided can say something about culture through its imprint on the landscape

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94

cultural identity

how people are identified and how they identify themselves

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95

nation

a population represented by a singular culture or a culture group

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96

ethnicity

a complex mix of genetic heritage and political allegiance

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97

state

a population represented by a single government

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98

race

the physical characteristics of a common genetic heritage

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99

indigenous population

the people who originally settled in an area

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100

Melanesians

found in New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Fiji, named because of their dark skin coloration, have comparatively thin bodies and angular facial features, with a curly hair shaft

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