Mechanical & Chemical Digestion + Absorption

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What is mechanical digestion?

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What is mechanical digestion?

Aka Physical digestion is break down of goods using physical processes to increase the surface area and the efficiency of chemical digestion.

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examples of physical break down processes

  • Chewing

  • slicing

  • grinding

  • squeezing

  • Etc

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First place where Mechanical digestion happens

Mouth

  • Teeth cut, slice, grind up food into smaller pieces

  • Tongue pushes/ food against hard palate

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Second place where Mechanical digestion happens

Esophagus

  • 2 muscle layers squeeze food/bolus as it moves to the stomach (peristalsis). Longitudinal compress, rings move down

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3rd place where Mechanical Digestion happens

Stomach

  • 3 muscle layers contract very tightly to break food down

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4th place where mechanical digestion happens

Small intestine

  • Squeezing, mixing with bile + enzymes

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Where does Mechanical digestion happen?

Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine

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What is your Esophagus lined with, and why?

Its lined with mucus & saliva to reduce the friction between the esophagus & bolus Mucus prevents hydrochloric acid from eating the stomach

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What does Emulsification do

increases the efficiencies and creates more surface area

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What is chemical digestion

the break down of food by acid & enzymes into macronutrients that can be absorbed by the body

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Where does Chemical digestion happen?

Mouth Stomach Small intestine

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First place food is chemically digested

Mouth Salivary glands makes & secrete salivary amylase to break down starch into complex carbohydrates which are called polysaccharides (Many, sugars) Starch is where the sugar in the plants is

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2nd place food is chemically digested

Stomach

  • Its going to make & release hydrochloric acid until the pH level drops to 2.4

  • Next pepsin & pepsinogen breaks down protein into polypeptides

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3rd place food is chemically digested #1

Small Intestine Pancreas makes & releases Lipase breaks down lipids (fats) into fatty acids and glycerol, which can be absorbed in the blood stream

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3rd place food is chemically digested #2

Small Intestine Pancreas makes & releases Protease which breaks down polypeptides into amino acids, which can be absorbed

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3rd place food is chemically digested #3

Small Intestine Pancreas makes & releases Pancreatic amylase to break polysaccharides into monosaccharides, which can be absorbed.

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What happens when absorption goes wrong?

  • Diarrhea

  • Constipation

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What is Diarrhea?

Not enough water is absorbed through the large intestine because the feces moves to quickly

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Why does Diarrhea happen?

When lining of Large intestine irritated by:

  • foods that are spicy, greasy, or too acidic

  • Food intolerances

  • too much fiber

  • Illness (usually bacteria)

Causes watery, loose stool

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What is constipation?

Too much water is absorbed through the large intestine because either move too slow or sits too long

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Why does constipation happen?

  • Dehydration

    • low water intake

    • Diarrhea

  • not eough fiber

  • holding in you poo

Causes hard dry stool

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