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How does water enter the cell membrane?

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1

How does water enter the cell membrane?

  • Some water molecules don’t need proteins to enter the cell but they may need help due to the huge amount of water trying to enter the cells

  • The water gets this help due to a specific type of transport protein known as aquaporin

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2

What is the fluid mosaic model?

model used to describe a membrane’s structure(diverse protein molecules suspended in fluid phospholipid bilayer)

  • in other words it describes the fluidity of the cel membrane

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3

What does the plasma membrane allow?

selective permeability(lets certain things in and out of the cell)

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4

What molecules have an easier time going through the cell membrane?

  • Smaller not charged molecules easily travel through the membrane

  • Meanwhile, bigger,charged molecules have a hard time to pass through membrane and need special protein to pass through

<ul><li><p>Smaller not charged molecules easily travel through the membrane</p></li><li><p>Meanwhile, bigger,charged molecules have a hard time to pass through membrane and need special protein to pass through</p></li></ul>
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5

What do transport molecules do?

allow specific ions/molecules to enter or exit the cell

<p>allow specific ions/molecules to enter or exit the cell</p>
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6

What is a channel transport protein?

This protein is one that allows the solute molecule into the cell and requires no energy to do so as it is “down hill/going with the gradient”

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7

What is an active transport protein?

This protein is one that allows solute molecules to enter the cell by going “uphill/against the gradient” by requiring energy (ATP)

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8

What is an enzyme?

  • certain membrane proteins that carry out sequential reactions as well as modify one molecule through an interaction and create a new product

<ul><li><p>certain membrane proteins that carry out sequential reactions as well as modify one molecule through an interaction and create a new product</p></li></ul>
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9

What are attachment proteins?

  • attach to the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton

  • help support the membrane(attach from outer side of the membrane with the ECM to the inner side of the membrane with the cytoskeleton)

  • can coordinate external and internal changes

<ul><li><p>attach to the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton</p></li><li><p>help support the membrane(attach from outer side of the membrane with the ECM to the inner side of the membrane with the cytoskeleton)</p></li><li><p>can coordinate external and internal changes</p></li></ul>
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10

Receptor Proteins

  • signaling molecules bind to receptor proteins

  • these receptor proteins then relay the message by activating other molecules inside the cell

<ul><li><p>signaling molecules bind to receptor proteins</p></li><li><p>these receptor proteins then relay the message by activating other molecules inside the cell</p></li></ul>
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11

Junction Proteins

  • form intercellular junctions that attach adjacent cells

  • in other words they attach together to form tissue

<ul><li><p>form intercellular junctions that attach adjacent cells</p></li><li><p>in other words they attach together to form tissue</p></li></ul>
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12

Glycoprotein

  • serve as ID tags (recognize self from non-self)

  • may be recognize by membrane proteins of other cells

<ul><li><p>serve as ID tags (recognize self from non-self)</p></li><li><p>may be recognize by membrane proteins of other cells</p></li></ul>
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13

What is the overview of cell signaling?

knowt flashcard image
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14

Give an overview for signal transduction pathways.

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15

What does the cell membrane of cells look like and what are the different parts that compose them?

knowt flashcard image
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16

What is the general term “transport” in cells mean?

allows passage of substances across cell membranes

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17

What does passive transport generally mean?

Transporting molecules into the cell by going “with the gradient” and not using energy

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18

What does active transport generally mean?

the use of transporting molecules out of the cell by going against the gradient and using energy

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19

What are the gradients movement ways for active and passive transport?

Active: Low to High

Passive: High to Low

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20

What are the different types of passive transport

  1. Diffusion: molecules go from high to low concentration

  2. Facilitated Diffusion: molecules go from high to low concentration with the help of certain proteins

  3. Osmosis: diffusion of water from higher to lower concentrations across a selectively permeable membrane

<ol><li><p>Diffusion: molecules go from high to low concentration</p></li><li><p>Facilitated Diffusion: molecules go from high to low concentration with the help of certain proteins</p></li><li><p>Osmosis: diffusion of water from higher to lower concentrations across a selectively permeable membrane</p></li></ol>
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21

What is diffusion and its goal?

  • tendency of particles to spread out evenly in an available space

  • its goal is to find equilibrium among the same type of molecules

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22

Describe the U-tube experiment and what is signifies.

  • In this experiment the amount of solute is uneven on both sides of the tube as a membrane is permeable to water but not the solute

  • Due to this the water will cross the membrane and move down its own concentration gradient until the solute concentration on both sides is equal

<ul><li><p>In this experiment the amount of solute is uneven on both sides of the tube as a membrane is permeable to water but not the solute</p></li><li><p>Due to this the water will cross the membrane and move down its own concentration gradient until the solute concentration on both sides is equal</p></li></ul>
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23

What is tonicity?

term that describes the agility of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water in order to reach equilibrium

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24

What is a hypertonic solution and what is its effect on cells?

  • causes cells to shrink and is a solution with high solute levels

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25

What is a hypotonic solution and what is its effect on cells?

  • Plant cells= Turgid(normal)

  • Animal Cells=swelling till burst

  • Solution with low solute levels

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26

What is an isotonic solution and what is its effect on cells?

  • animal cells=normal

  • plant cells=flaccid

  • solution with equal solute levels

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27

What types of substances early diffuse across a cell membrane?

hydrophobic/nonpolar

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28

What types of substances need help moving across membranes?

  • hydrophillic/polar substances need help moving across the membrane with specific transport proteins

  • this is known as facilitated diffusion

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29

What is the general rule of thumb for transport proteins?

greater the number of transport proteins for a particular solute in a membrane, the faster the solute’s rate of diffusion

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30

What is the importance of aquaporin?

  • allows for the rapid diffusion of water into and out of certain cells as it is a channel protein

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31

What happens in active transport?

a cell must expend ATP energy to move solutes against concentration gradient

<p>a cell must expend ATP energy to move solutes against concentration gradient</p>
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32

What are the two mechanisms to move large molecules across membranes?

Exocytosis

Endocytosis

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33

What is exocytosis?

used to export bulky molecules such as proteins or polysaccharides

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34

What is endocytosis?

used to take in large molecules

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35

What happens in both endocytosis and exocytosis?

material is transported after it is packaged within a vesicle that fuses with the membrane

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36

What are the three kinds of endocytosis?

Phagocytosis

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Pinocytosis

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37

Phagocytosis

engulfment of a food practice by the cell wrapping cell membrane around it and forming a vacuole

<p>engulfment of a food practice by the cell wrapping cell membrane around it and forming a vacuole</p>
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38

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

uses membrane receptors for specific solutes

<p>uses membrane receptors for specific solutes</p>
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39

Pinocytosis

engulfment of small particles suspended in extracellular fluid

<p>engulfment of small particles suspended in extracellular fluid</p>
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40

Energy

Ability to do work

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41

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion

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42

What does kinetic energy require?

Requires ATP via cellular respiration made via mitochondria

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43

What are the two forms of kinetic energy?

thermal(heat) energy and light energy

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44

What is potential energy?

Energy stored in the location or structure of matter

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45

Chemical Energy

Type of potential energy that is available for release in a chemical reaction

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46

What is an example of chemical energy?

The process of breaking down glucose to make ATP via cellular respiration

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47

What can light be used to do?

Harness the power of photosynthesis

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48

What is thermodynamics?

Study of energy transformations

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49

What is system in terms of thermodynamics?

Matter under study

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50

What is surroundings in terms of thermodynamics?

Everything outside of the study

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51

What is a closed system?

Isolated from its surroundings like a liquid in a thermos

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52

What is an open system?

Energy and matter can be transferred between system and surroundings

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53

What type of system are organisms?

Open systems since they absorb light in organic molecules and release heat and metabolic waste

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54

What is the first law of thermodynamics?

states that energy can be transferred and transformed, in other words “Energy is neither created nor destroyed”

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55

What is the second law of thermodynamics?

states that every energy transformation must make the universe more disordered or entropy (quantity used as a measure of disorder, or randomness)

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56

What is an exergonic reaction?

Releases energy

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57

Exergonic Reactions

Huge amount of reactions into small amount of products with a side product of ATP

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58

What are examples of exergonic reactions?

Hydrolysis(breaks down polymers to monomers and release energy) and Cellular Respiration

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59

What are endergonic reactions ?

require energy and yield products rich in potential energy

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60

What is an example of an endergonic reaction?

Photosynthesis

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61

What does motabolism do?

encompasses all of a cell’s chemical reactions- a mix of both exergonic and endergonic.

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62

How does ATP power cellular work?

transfer of a phosphate group from ATP forming ADP and P is involved in chemical, transport, and mechanical work

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63

How exactly does the hydrolysis process work?

The process breaks down the bond between the second and third phosphates and releases energy therefore it is exergonic/ endergonic

<p>The process breaks down the bond between the second and third phosphates and releases energy therefore it is exergonic/ endergonic</p>
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64

What are the three kinds of work does a cell do?

1)Chemical: driving endergonic reactions such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers.

  1. Transport: pumping substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement

  2. Mechanical: beating of cilia, contraction of muscle cells, and movement of chromosomes

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65

What is dephosphorelation and phosphorylation?

Removing phosphate and adding phosphate

<p>Removing phosphate and adding phosphate</p>
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66

Describe the ATP to ADP+P cycle

knowt flashcard image
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67

What are enzymes?

protein catalysts that decrease the activation energy needed to begin a reaction

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68

What must a substrate do?

Fit specifically into an enzyme’s active site

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69

What is activation energy?

amount of energy necessary to push the reactants over an energy barrier

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70

What is the transition state

summit the molecules are at an unstable point

<p>summit the molecules are at an unstable point</p>
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71

What is delta G?

The difference between free energy of the products and the free energy of the reactants

<p>The difference between free energy of the products and the free energy of the reactants</p>
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72

How do enzymes work?

Speed reactions by lowering activation energy and can be reached even at moderate temperatures

<p>Speed reactions by lowering activation energy and can be reached even at moderate temperatures</p>
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73

Describe the catalactic cycle of an enzyme

knowt flashcard image
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74

What is a competitive inhibitor?

competes with the substrate for the active site.

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75

What is a non competitive inhibitor?

alters an enzyme’s function by changing its shape

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76

What is feedback inhibition?

  • helps regulate metabolism

  • Product of reaction is the inhibitor

<ul><li><p>helps regulate metabolism</p></li><li><p>Product of reaction is the inhibitor</p></li></ul>
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77

What are some uses for enzyme inhibitors?

Enzyme inhibitors have also been developed as

pesticides, deadly poisons for chemical warfare, and Beneficiary drugs

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78

What are cofactors?

  • non protein helpers for catalytic activities

  • They may be organic or inorganic

  • They bind to the enzyme permanently or reversibly

  • Some inorganic cofactors include zinc, iron, and copper

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79

What are coenzymes?

Are organic cofactors that include vitamins or molecules derived from vitamins

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