Mix biology class 11th

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study of internal structure is called

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compilation of biology chapters of class 11

304 Terms

1

study of internal structure is called

anatomy

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2

what is apical meristem

The area at the apex of a stem or root that has parenchyma cells that continually divide, producing growth in length.

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3

during the formation of leaves and elongation of stem the cells which left behind the shoot apical meristem constitutes to form

axillary bud

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4

what is intercalary meristem

the growth region at the base of grass leaves that causes leaves to elongate

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5

example of intercalary meristem

grasses, regenerate parts

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6

name the meristem that occur in nature region of roots and shoots of many plants particularly Woody axis and appear later than primary meristem

secondary or lateral meristem

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7

example of lateral meristem

fascicular vascular cambium, interfascicular cambium, cork cambium

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8

precursor of plastid is known as

proplastid

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9

which simple tissues form the major component within organs

parenchyma

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10

shape of parenchyma cells

isodiametric

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11

the walls of parenchyma cells are made up of

cellulose

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12

which simple tissue is formed in layers and is present in the epidermis of dicot plants

collenchyma

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13

function of parenchyma tissue

photosynthesis, storage, secretion

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14

is the intercellular space present in parenchyma

if it is present then it will be in very less amount

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15

'A' found either as a homogenous layer or in patches. whom does A refers to

collenchyma

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16

why the cells are thicken at the corners in collenchyma.

due to deposition of cellulose hemicellulose and pectin

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17

is the intercellular space present in collenchyma

no

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18

function of collenchyma

to support such as in young stem and petiole of leaf

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19

'A' consist of long narrow cells with thick and lignified cell walls having a few on numerous pits.

sclerenchyma

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20

What are fibres?

thick walled elongated and pointed cells generally occur in groups in various parts of plant.

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21

function of sclerenchyma

provides mechanical support to organs

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22

The 'A' are spherical oval aur cylinderical highly thickened dead cells with narrow lumen

sclereids

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23

where is the sclereids found

fruit wall of nuts , pulp of fruits like guava and sapota ,seed coat of legumes and leaves of tea

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24

outermost layer of primary plant body

epidermis

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25

what does epidermal tissue system consists of

epidermal cells ,stomata and epidermal appendages

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26

the outside of epidermis is covered with a waxy thick layer called

cuticle

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27

structures present in epidermis of leaf

stomata

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28

function of stomata

transpiration and gaseous exchange

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29

Stomatal apparatus =

stomatal aperture, guard cells, subsidiary cells

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30

what are subsidiary cells

cells present in the vicinity of guard cells which become specialised in their shape and size

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31

shape of guard cells in grasses

dumbbell shape

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32

name the structures which help in preventing water loss

cuticle, trichomes

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33

unicellular elongation of the epidermal cells which absorb water and minerals from the soil

roots hairs

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34

anatomical unit of muscle

muscle fibre

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35

What is the glenoid cavity?

shallow socket that articulates with the head of the humerus, forming the shoulder joint

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36

what is acetabulum

Articulating surface for the femur's head

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37

phylogenetic classification system was given by

engler, Hutchinson, takhtajan

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38

father of algology

F.E fritsch

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39

example of anisogamous

eudorina

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40

example of oogamous

volvox, fucus

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41

name the algae which are rich source of iodine

fucus and laminaria

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42

green algae have rigid cell wall made of inner layer of______________ and outer layer of______________

cellulose ,pectose

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43

colony of volvox is is known as

coenobium

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44

cell wall of phaeophyceae is composed of

cellulose and algin

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45

cell wall of rhodophycea is composed of

cellulose, pectin, polysulphate esters

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46

tallest tree species in gymnosperm

sequoia

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47

smallest gymnosperm

zamia

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48

dryopteris also known as

anthelmintics drug

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49

adiantum is also known as

walking fern

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50

example of heterosporous pteridophytes

salvinia and selaginella

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51

pollination in pine trees is known as

sulphur shower

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52

largest sperm in the plant world is of which plant

cycas

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53

oldest living Fossil and is connecting link between cycads and rotifers

ginko biloba

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54

aquatic water fern used as biofertilizer

azolla

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55

predominant stage of life cycle of a moss is

gametophyte

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56

name the two stages occurring in mosses

1.) protonema stage

2.) leafy stage

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57

common examples of mosses

funaria, polytrichum and sphagnum

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58

examples of pteridophytes

ferns, horsetails, psilotum, lycopodium, dryopteris, adiantum

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59

common examples of gymnosperms

gingko, pinus, cedrus, cycas, sequoia

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60

example of chlorophyceae

chlamydomonas, volvox , ulothrix, spirogyra, chara

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61

examples of phaeophyceae

dictyota, sargassum, laminaria, ectocarpus ,fucus

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62

examples of rhodophycea

porphyra, gracilaria, gelidium, polysiphonia

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63

smallest angiosperm

wolfia

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64

tallest angiosperm

Eucalyptus

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65

what are siphonostele

Stele with pith

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66

what is protostele

Steel without pith

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67

plant group with the largest ovule, largest gamete and the largest tree is

gymnosperms

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68

the book genera plantarum was written by

Bentham and hooker

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69

in which plant the wing of seed developed from ovuliferrous scale

pinus

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70

what are corollaoids roots

when cycas associated with nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, the association form is called coralloid roots

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71

example of microphylls in pteridophytes

selaginella

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72

example of macrophylls in pteridophytes

ferns

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73

what is tetany

muscle spasms due to low Ca ions

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74

what is arthritis

inflammation of the joints

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75

what is gouts

inflammation of joint due to uric acid crystals

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76

what is muscluar dystrophy

degeneration of skeleton muscle due to genetic disorder

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77

name the joint between altlas and axis

pivot joint

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78

name the joint between carpals

gliding joint

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79

coala bones is formed by fusion of three bones

ilium, ischium and pubis

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80

name the first vertebra which artculates with occipital condyles

altlas

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81

number of cervical vertebrae in mammals

7

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82

no. of true ribs present in human beings

7

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83

no. of false ribs present in human being

3(8th ,9th, 10th)

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84

no. of floating ribs present in human being

2(11th and 12th)

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85

Ribcage =

thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum

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86

name the flat bone on the ventral midline of thorax

sternum

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87

axial skeleton comprises how many no. of bones

80

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88

Axial skeleton=

skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs

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89

single u-shaped bone present at the base of skull

hyoid bones

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90

appendicular skeleton includes

pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs

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91

name the bones of hand(forelimb)

huemrus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, pahalanges

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92

name the bones of lower limbs

femur(thighbone), tibia, fibula, patella(round bone, kneecaps), tarsals(form ankle and heel), metatarsals(form the arches), phalanges(toe bones)

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93

structural and functional unit of muscle

sarcomere

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94

light bands in muscles contain which type of protein

actin

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95

dark band in muscles contain which type of protein

myosin

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96

name the line of elastic fibre which bisects light band

Z line

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97

name the line of elastic fibre which bisect dark band

M line

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98

the central portion of thick filament which is not overlapped by thin filament is called

H zone

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99

what are cartilaginous joints

bones connected by cartilage

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100

where is ball and socket joint is located

between humerus and pectoral girdle

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