Reading & Writing 11 | Q3

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Linguistics

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LESSON 1: Text as Connected Discourse Reading & Writing Skills, 3rd Quarter 11 || STEM || Second Semester

78 Terms

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Linguistics

The scientific study of human language

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Linguistics

Concerned with how language is formed and how it works

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Linguistics

Concerned with the relationship between language and cognition, society, and history

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Language

A complex structure built up of smaller units connected to each other

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Sentences

Largest unit in linguistics that shows grammatical structure

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Sentences

Made by combining the correct words based on the rules of grammar

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Discourse

  • A unit larger than sentences

  • Has a structural pattern that holds more meaning than a sentence

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Discourse

Source of information about people’s experiences, attitudes, feelings, beliefs, and practices

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Discourse

Made up of utterances having the property of coherence

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Text

Made of signs and symbols systematized by grammar and organized in logical language to properly present the intended message

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Text

  • Units primarily concerned with structuring and conveying complex information

  • Usually written, can be anything that is documented

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Text

Made up of sentences having the property of grammatical cohesion

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Text

  • structured to convey complex information

  • structurally cohesive

  • relies on context and connection to be interpreted

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Structural Cohesion

One of the formal clues that tells us that a sequence of sentences is a text

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Cameron and Panovic

He notes that Structural Cohesion is what is lost or at least obscured when the order of the sentence is reversed

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Structural Cohesion

what is lost or at least obscured when the order of the sentence is reverse

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Morphology

The study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language

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Morpheme

The smallest grammatical unit within the language

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morphe, shape/form

Morpheme comes from the greek word ___ which means?

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  • Free Morpheme

  • Bound Morpheme

Types of Morphemes

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Free Morpheme

Carry a semantic meaning on its own and does not require a prefix/suffix to give it meaning

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Bound Morpheme

Cannot stand alone but must be bound to other morphemes like -s, un-, and -y

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  • Derivational Morphemes

  • Inflectional Morphemes

Subtypes of Bound Morpheme

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Derivational Morphemes

Change the meaning or the part of speech of a word

(ex: un- which gives a negative meaning of the word)

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Inflectional Morphemes

Add grammatical information to the word

(ex: add -s to make it plural)

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Context Clues

Words, phrases, and sentences that surround an unfamiliar word and help recognize the meaning of an unknown word

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Reading

A cognitive process of decoding symbols to derive meaning from a text

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Reading

Allows to access information, ideas, and stories that can broaden our understanding of the world

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Reading

Improves understanding of grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure

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  • Skimming

  • Scanning

  • Intensive Reading

  • Extensive Reading

Types of Reading Technique

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Skimming

Sometimes referred to as gist reading, means going through the text to grasp the main idea

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Scanning

The reader scuttles across sentences to get a particular piece of information

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Scanning

The technique of rejecting or ignoring irrelevant information from the text to locate a specific piece of information

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Intensive Reading

Involves close reading that aims at the accuracy of comprehension

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Extensive Reading

Lays more emphasis on fluency and less on accuracy

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Extensive Reading

Involves reading for pleasure and is more of an out-of-classroom activity

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Writing

  • Any conventional system of marks or signs that represents the utterances of a language

  • Renders language visible

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Writing

Process of using symbols, letters, punctuation, and spaces to communicate thoughts and ideas in a readable form

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Writing

A medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with symbols.

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Patterns of Development

Logical arrangement of ideas which helps follow ideas easily and understand a text better.

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Narration

A sequence of events, not necessarily in chronological orde, told by a narrator, happening in a particular place at a particular time

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Narration

Revisiting a world based on the author’s memory

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Definition

Helps clarify and explain concepts by answering the question “What does it mean?”

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Definition

Explains information through the use of illustrations, examples, and desccriptions

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Exemplification

Presents the general statement and then provides specific and concrete examples to expound on the main idea

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Exemplification

Used to provide an example of something

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Description

Provides details on the idea by using either a sensory or spatial pattern

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Sensory Pattern

Through this, ideas are arranged based on one or all of the five senses

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Spatial Pattern

Ideas are arranged by location or physical space

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Comparison and Contrast

Organizes ideas based on how the events, places, people, things, and concepts are similar to or different from one another

  • two ways on how ideas can be arranged are separately and side-by-side

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Classification and Division

Organizes ideas into categories or divisions based on criteria and standards

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Classification and Division

Used when classifying people, things, places, and other tiems

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Cause and Effect

Organizes details based on the cause, the reason, and the result or consequences of a certain phenomenon

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Problem-Solution

Organizes ideas into problems and proposed solutions

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problem

usually includes the what, who, when, where, why and how of the problem.

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solution

presents the major effects of the problem and the possible solutions to address it.

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Persuasion

Organizes ideas to show how a set of evidence leads to a logical conclusion or argument

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Persuasion

Presents the issue, position, and the supporting evidence that support the position.

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  • Organization

  • Coherence and Cohesion

  • Language Use

  • Mechanics

Properties of a Well-Written Text

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Organization

About the arrangement of ideas, incident, details, evience, and order

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Organization

Achieved when ideas are logically and accurately arranged

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Coherence and Cohesion

Achieved when ideas are logically, clearly, and smoothly linked to one another

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Coherence

  • Occurs when ideas are connected at the conceptual level or idea level

  • Seen through well-defended arguments and organied points

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Cohesion

  • The connection of ideas at the sentence level

  • Can readily be seen in a text through the smooth flow of the sentences and the connection of ideas

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Language Use

Refers to the acceptable style of language for a particular form of text

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Mechanics

Refers to the conventions of writing which includes capitalization, punctuation, spelling, numerals, abbv, acronyms, and contractions

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  • use clear and concise sentences

  • avoid redundancies, wordiness, cliches, high falutin language

  • avoid excessive use of “there” and “it” strutures

  • use precise vocabulary

  • be consistent with your pronoun’s POV

  • avoid sexist language

  • use appropriate level of formality

effective language use is achieved by:

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  • always use standard english

  • avoid contractions

  • avoid exclamation marks unless they are part of a direct quotation

  • mention the full name in first mention. thereafter, use the abbreviation

  • numbers from 0-10 should be spelled out while higher than 10 should be in figured

  • citations are used in academic and formal texts

in academic and more formal texts, the following should be observed:

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Claims

  • central arguent or thesis statement of the text

  • what the writer tries to prove in the text by providing details, explanations, and other types of evidence

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Claims

  • most important part of the text, usually found in the introduction or in the few paragraphs of the text

  • a sentence that summarizes the most important thing that the writer wants to say as a result of his/her thinking, reading, or writing

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  • A claim should be argumentative and debatable

  • A claim should be specific and focused

  • A claim should be interesting and engaging

  • A claim should be logical

Characteristics of a good claim

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  • Claim of Fact

  • Claim of Value

  • Claim of Policy

Types of Claims

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Claim of Fact

  • makes an assertion about something that can be proved or disproved with factual evidence

  • usually answers a “what?” question

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Claim of Fact

  • Is the issue related to a possible cause or effect?

  • Is this statement strue or false? How can its truthfulness be verified?

  • Is this claim controversial or debatable?

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Claim of Value

  • argues that something is good or bad. or right or wrong, or that one thing is better than another thing

  • attempts to explain how problems, situations, or issues ought to be valued

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Claim of Value

  • Which claims endorse what is good or right?

  • What qualities should be considered good? Why?

  • Which of these calues contend with others? Which ones are more important, and why?

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Claim of Policy

  • argues that certain conditions should exist, or that something should or should not be done, in order to solve a problem

  • defend actionably plans, usually answer “how?” questions

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Claim of Policy

  • Does the claim suggest a specific remedy to solve the problem?

  • Is the policy clearly defined?

  • Is the need for the policy established?

  • Is the policy the best one available? For whom?

  • How does the policy solve the problem?

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