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Hint

1

**Mill’s Method of agreement**

Find cases in which the effect has occurred Determine if there’s only one thing that they all share

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2

Mill's method of difference

Find cases in which the effect has occurred in one, but not the other

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3

How is a conceptual definition defined?

by a set of concrete traits of similar type

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4

How is a multidimensional concept defined?

two or more distinct groups of empirical characteristics

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5

The concept of ___ is defined as the extent to which ____ exhibits the characteristic of ___

What is the first blank?

Restates the concept label

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6

The concept of ___ is defined as the extent to which ____ exhibits the characteristic of ___

What is the second blank?

describes the unit of analysis

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7

The concept of ___ is defined as the extent to which ____ exhibits the characteristic of ___

What is the third blank?

Specifies the property that we think best captures the meaning of the concept

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8

What does an operational definition do?

Completes the bridge between concept and measurement

Puts “into operation” the measurement of the empirical property described in the conceptual definition

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9

What is the goal of a measurement strategy?

To measure only intended characteristics

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10

An ecological fallacy arises

when an aggregate-level variable is used to make inferences at the individual level

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11

What is reliability?

degree of consistency of a measure, if the measure comes up multiple times

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12

What is random measurement error?

Haphazard, chaotic distortion in the measurement process

Inconsistent unintended characteristics

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13

What is systematic measurement error?

Consistent, chronic, distortion into an empirical measurement

Consistent unintended characteristics

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14

What is validity?

Records the true value of the intended characteristic

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15

Interval level of measurement

Values communicate the exact amount of the characteristic being measured

ex. Temperature, income, age

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16

Ordinal level of measurement

values communicate the RELATIVE amount of the characteristic being measures, scale

ex. education level (HS-PhD) , low-medium-high, never… always

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17

Nominal level of measurement

Values that communicate differences, no numerical value

ex. Gender, marital status, college major,

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18

What are the measures of central tendency?

Mean, median, mode

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19

What is dispersion?

Extent to which the units of analysis are distributed across the values of the variable

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20

Maximum dispersion

Cases are spread evenly across all values of the variable

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21

Minimum dispersion

Cases all fall into one value of the variable

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22

Positive skew

Mean > median, right-hand tail

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23

Negative skew

Median > mean, left-hand tail

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24

What are the 3 elements of a hypothesis

Describes a connection between the dependent variable and the independent (casual) variable Asserts the direction or tendency of this connection Is testable

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25

In comparison of _____, those having ____ will be more likely to have ____ than will those having ____

What is the first blank?

Units of analysis

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26

In comparison of _____, those having ____ will be more likely to have ____ than will those having ____

What is the second blank?

One value of the independent variable

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27

In comparison of _____, those having ____ will be more likely to have ____ than will those having ____

What is the third blank?

One value of the dependent variable

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28In comparison of _____, those having ____ will be more likely to have ____ than will those having ____

What is the fourth blank?

Different value of the independent variable

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29

In a comparison of individuals who read newspapers, those with higher levels of educational attainment will be more likely to read the newspaper everyday than those with lower levels of educational attainment.

What are the units of analysis?

Individuals who read newpapers

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30

In a comparison of individuals who read newspapers, those with higher levels of educational attainment will be more likely to read the newspaper everyday than those with lower levels of educational attainment.

What is the independent variable?

Educational attainment

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31

In a comparison of individuals who read newspapers, those with higher levels of educational attainment will be more likely to read the newspaper everyday than those with lower levels of educational attainment.

What is the dependent vaiable?

Likelihood to read the newspaper everyday

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32

What are the four common mistakes of a hypothesis?

Not making an explicit comparison

Not stating direction or tendency

Being vague

Describing only one variable

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33

Highly religious people vote at high rates

What is the mistake in this hypothesis?

Not making an explicit comparison

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34

In a comparison of individuals, gender and abortion attitudes are related

What is the mistake in this hypothesis?

Not stating direction or tendency

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35

Because of socioeconomic changes associated with the growth in social media, contemporary political conflicts resolve around post-materialist values

What is the mistake of this hypothesis?

Being vague

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36

In a comparison of individuals, some people are more likely to donate money to political candidates than other people

What is the mistake of this hypothesis?

Describing only one variable

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37

What level of measurement is needed for cross tabulations?

Nominal/ordinal

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38

In a crosstab, the independent variable goes in the ___, while the dependent variable goes in the ___

Columns, rows

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39

What level of measurement is needed for bar charts/graphs?

Nominal or ordinal

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40

What level of measurement is needed for line graphs?

Interval dependent variable

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41

What level of measurement is needed for means comparison?

Interval dependent variable

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42

The concept of math ability is defined as the extent to which students can correctly use basic mathematical operations.

Is this a conceptual definition or an operational definition?

Conceptual

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43

Ask students to solve ten word problems requiring addition, multiplication, division, etc.

Is this a conceptual definition or an operational definition?

Operational

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44

What are the three things a conceptual definition must communicate?

The variation within a measurable characteristic or set of characteristics The subjects or groups to which the concept applies How the characteristic is to be measured

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45

What can a boxplot tell us?

Five-number summary of a variable:

Minimum value Lower quartile (25 percentile) Median Upper Quartile (75 percentile) Maximum value

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46

The proper mode of analysis for two categorical variables

Crosstabs and bar graph

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47

In line graphs, bar graphs, and box plots, the independent variable goes into the ___, while the dependent variable goes into the ___

Category axis, variable

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48

What level of measurement can you use mean, median, and mode?

Interval

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49

What level of measurement can you use median and mode?

Ordinal

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50

What level of measurement can you use only use mode?

Nominal

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