AP US History Review

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Christopher Columbus

1451-1506
*Italian-born navigator who found fame when he landed in the Americas(Oct. 12, 1492)
*Set sail on behalf of Spain with three ships: the Nina, the Pinta, and his flagship, the Santa Maria
*Originally, he sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean to find a water route to Asia
*Columbus was convinced that he had found the waterway that he sought and that the Americas were actually an extension of China
*Returned from his expedition with gold, encouraging further exploration

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Amerigo Vespucci

1454-1512
*Italian member of a Portuguese expedition
*Explored South America
*Discovery suggested that the expedition had found a "New World"
*After an account of Vespucci's 1497 expedition was published, a cartographer mistakenly thought that Vespucci had led the expedition and had landed in the New World before Christopher Columbus; the cartographer named the continent America

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Treaty of Tordesillas

1493
*Commitment between Spain and Portugal
*Created a Papal Line of Demarcation, which divided the New World: east of the line for Portugal and west of it for Spain
*Portugal also received the easternmost part of what is currently Brazil, when it "discovered" the land in 1500
*Later, the Papal Line affected colonization in Africa and Asia

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New Spain

1400s and 1500s
*Spain tightly controlled empire in the New World
*Mainly located in North and Central America, including the Caribbean and Spanish East Indies
*To deal with labor shortages, the Spaniards developed a system of large manors (ecomiendas) using Native American slaves under conquistadors
*With the death of Native American slaves, Spaniards began importing African slaves to supply their labor needs

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Mercantilism

1500s-1700s
*Prevailing economic philosophy of the 1600s that held colonies existed to serve the mother country
*Founded on the belief that the world's wealth was sharply limited and, therefore, one nation's gain was another nation's loss
*Each nation's goal was to export more than it imported in a favorable balance of trade; the difference would be made up in their possession of gold and silver, which would make the nation strong both economically and militarily
*Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the government

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Queen Elizabeth I

1533-1603 (ruled 1558-death)
*Protestant successor to Queen Mary (England)
*Popular leader and the first woman to successfully hold the throne
*Invested in English raids on the Spanish New World; Spain responded with the Spanish Armada
*Established Protestantism in England and encouraged English business

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The Spanish Armada

1588
*Fleet assembled by King Phillip II of Spain to invade England
*The Armada was defeated by the skill of British military leaders and by rough seas during the assault
*England's victory over Spanish forces was one of the great achievements of Queen Elizabeth I, as it established England as an emerging sea power
*Its defeat helped bring about the decline of the Spanish empire

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Types of Colonies in the New World

1600s
*In a charter colony, colonists were essentially members of a corporation, and electors among the colonists controlled the government based on an agreed-upon charter
*A royal colony had a governor selected by England's king; the governor served in the leadership role and chose additional, lower-ranking officers
*Proprietary colonies were owned by individuals with direct responsibility to the king; each proprietor selected a governor, who served as the authority figure for the colony

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English Puritanism

1500s and 1600s
*Movement by those who wished to reform the Church of England to be more in line with their ideology
*Though King Henry VIII had set out to separate his own Church of England from papal authority, many Roman Catholic traditions and practices remained
*Puritans rejected these roman Catholic holdovers and sought to make the English Church "pure"
*Puritans held Calvinist beliefs, such as predestination and the authority of Scripture over papal authority
*Puritanism echoes throughout American culture in the ideas of self-reliance, moral fortitude, and an emphasis on intellectualism

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Joint-Stock Company

Popularized in 1600s
*A type of business structure used by some colonial explorers to raise money for their expeditions
*These private trading companies sold shares to investors who provided start-up funding
*In return for taking on the risk of the investment, investors were paid based on the profits of the expedition
*Many modern business structures, such as the American corporation, are founded on principles of the joint-stock company

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Dutch West India Company

1500s and 1600s
*The joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and in New Amsterdam, which later became New York
*Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois
*Instituted the patroon system, in which large estates were given to wealthy men who transported at least fifty families to New Netherland to tend the land (few seized the opportunity)

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Sir Walter Raleigh

1587
*Selected Roanoke Island as a site for the first English settlement
*Returned to England to secure additional supplies, but he found the colony deserted upon his return; it is not known what became of the Roanoke settlers
*Raleigh abandoned his attempts to colonize Virginia after the failure at Roanoke
*Held back by a lack of financial resources and the war with Spain, English colonization in America was impeded for fifteen years

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St. Augustine, Florida

1598
*French Protestants (Huguenots) went to the New World to freely practice their religion, and they formed a colony near modern-day St. Augustine, Florida
*Spain, which oversaw Florida reacted violently to the Huguenots because they were trespassers and because they were viewed as heretics by the Catholic Church
*Spain sent a force to the settlement and massacred the fort's inhabitants
*The settlement at St. Augustine, Florida, is considered to be the first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States

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Jamestown

Established 1607
*Named for James I (1566-1625), Queen Elizabeth's successor in England
*James I granted charters for charter colonies in the New World
*In 1607, the Virginia Company of London settled Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement
*Swampy location led to disease and contaminated water sources
*Despite its location and hostile relations with Native Americans, John Smith's harsh, charismatic leadership of the colony helped keep it from collapsing
*In 1619, African slaves arrived at Jamestown, becoming the first group of slaves to reach a British settlement

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"Starving Time"

1609-1610
*A period of starvation endured by the Jamestown colonists
*The colonists depended upon trade with the local Native Americans for their food supplies
*A series of conflicts between the colonists and the Native Americans limited the colonists' ability to trade for supplies and to farm their own food
*A large number of colonists died and others tried to flee to England; however, boats arrived with supplies from England intercepted the colonists and forced them to return to Jamestown
*Additional support from England, the development of new industries, and the creation of new trade partnerships helped ensure the settlement's long-term survival

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Indentured Servitude

1600s
*Poor workers, convicted criminals, and debtors received immigration passage and fees in return for a number of years at labor on behalf of a planter or company
*Servants entered into their contracts voluntarily and kept some legal rights
*However, servants had little control over the conditions of their work and living arrangements, and the system led to harsh and brutal treatment
*It remained the predominant system of labor until the 1670s; Bacon's Rebellion made the practice seem more risky to planters and owners, and improving economic conditions in England decreased the supply of servants
*Many owners relied on slave labor instead

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John Rolfe

1585-1622
*English colonist in Jamestown, Virginia
*Married Pocahontas
*Created process for curing tobacco, ensuring economic success for Jamestown

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House of Burgesses

1619
*Representative assembly in Virginia
*Election to a seat was limited to voting members of the charter colony, which at first was all free men; later rules required that a man own at least fifty acres of land to vote
*First representative house in America
Instituted the private ownership of land but maintained the rights of colonists

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Headright Sysyem

Introduced in 1618
*System used by the Virginia Company to attract colonists
It promised them parcels of land(roughly fifty acres) to immigrate to America
*Also gave nearly fifty acres for each servant that a colonist brought, allowing the wealthy to obtain large tracts of land
*The system solidified the use of indentured servitude for the time being

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The Separatists and Plymouth

1620
*Separatists were Puritans who believed the Church of England was beyond saving and felt that they must break away from it
*One group of Separatists that suffered harassment from the government fled to Holland and then to America
*Members of this group traveled on the Mayflower and became known as the Pilgrims, a term used for voyagers seeking to fulfill a religious mission
*The Mayflower set sail from Plymouth, England, in September 1620 and landed in Provincetown Harbor, settling in what became Plymouth, Massachusetts
*Before landing in the New World, the Pilgrims formed the Mayflower Compact, which provided for a government guided by the majority
William Bradford (1590-1657) served as the Plymouth Colony's first governor

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Massachusetts Bay Colony

1629
*Joint-stock company charted by a group of Puritans escaping King James I
*Led by John Winthrop, who taught that the new colony should be a model of Christian society
*These Puritans carefully organized their venture and upon arriving in Massachusetts, did not undergo the "starving time" that had often plagued other first-year colonies
*The government of Massachusetts developed to include a governor and a representative assembly

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Delaware

1631
*Dutch patroons established the first settlement in Delaware
*That settlement was destroyed by Native American attacks
*The Dutch West India Company and Dutchmen, including Peter Minuit, began to trade and settle in Delaware during the mid-to-late 1630s
*Between 1664 and 1674, Delaware switched between Dutch and English ownership, ending with English ownership in 1674

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Maryland

1632
*Maryland became the first proprietary colony to serve as a refuge for English Catholics
*George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) applied for the charter to create the Province of Maryland
*Calvert's son, Caecilius, helped establish a representative assembly
*Maryland passed its Act of Toleration in 1649, guaranteeing religious freedom to all Christians in the colony; this set an important precedent for later characterization of the United States and its Constitution

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Anne Hutchinson

1638
*Claimed to have had special revelations from God that superseded the Bible, contrary to Puritan doctrine
*The leadership of New England accused her of antinomian teachings (antinomianism is the belief that salvation is attained through faith and divine grace and not through strict adherence to rules or moral laws)
*Hutchinson was tried and banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony
*With her followers, she founded Portsmouth in the Aquidneck region (1638) in what is now known as Rhode Island

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Roger Williams and Rhode Island

Williams (1603-1683), Rhode Island established in 1644
*Williams was a Puritan preacher who fled Massachusetts after his views on religious observance became too extreme for the colonists
*Williams bought land from the Native Americans and founded Providence in 1636, and it was soon populated by his many followers
*Rhode Island formed as a combination of Providence, Portsmouth, and other settlements that had sprung up in the area
*Through Roger Williams, the colony granted complete religious toleration
*It tended to be populated by exiles and troublemakers and was sometimes called "Rogue's Island"
*The colony suffered constant political turmoil

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English Civil War

1641-1651
*Conflict was based in the struggle between King Charles I (son of King James I) and the English Parliament
*Charles claimed to rule by divine right; Parliament argues that its membership had rights that were separate from those granted to the king
*Parliament's members were mostly Puritan and had the backing of the merchant class and lesser land owners
*Wealthy nobles tended to support Charles I, who opposed Puritans on questions of religion
*Led to outright conflict between Royalist military forces and forces opposing Charles I
*Parliament's victory in 1651 resulted in the trial and execution of Charles I and the exile of his son Charles II
*The English monarchy was replaced with the Commonwealth of England (1649-1653) and then with a Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell's rule (1653-1659)

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Connecticut

Corporate colony established in 1662
*Thomas Hooker led a large group of Puritans to settle in the Connecticut River Valley after they had slight religious disagreements with the leadership of Massachusetts
*The major colonies in the Connecticut River Valley agreed to unite as the Connecticut Colony
*In 1639, the colony formed a set of laws known as the Fundamental Orders; these laws provided for representative government by those who were permitted to vote
*When the corporate colony was established and recognized by England, its charter was founded on the Fundamental Orders
The Fundamental Orders are an important example of the growth of political democracy

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The Carolinas

Granted in 1663
*King Charles II rewarded loyal noblemen with these lands after the twenty-year Puritan revolution in England
*In hopes of attracting settlers, the proprietors planned for a hierarchical society
*They experimented with silk manufacturing and with crops such as rice and indigo, but this provided unworkable and the Carolinas grew slowly as a result
*Large groups of colonists in the Carolinas came from Barbados; form of slavery that this group employed proved to be very harsh
While North Carolina became a separate colony in 1712, the same proprietors retained ownership
*Rebellion against the proprietors in 1719 led to royal intervention, and both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729

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New York and New Jersey

Established 1664
*Last Dutch governor of New York was Peter Stuyvesant
*After the British conquered the Dutch lands in America, English King Charles II gave the title to the lands between New England and Maryland to his brother, James, Duke of York
*James was adamantly opposed to representative assemblies
Residents continued to call for self-government until James relented, only to break this promise when he became James II, King of England
*The region that would become New Jersey was ruled as a separate proprietary colony; it eventually became a royal colony

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Quakers

Around 1680
*Quakers believed human religious institutions were largely unnecessary
*They thought they could receive revelation directly from God and placed little importance on the Bible
*They were pacifists and declined to show customary deference to their alleged social superiors
*Quakers' aggressiveness in denouncing established institutions brought them trouble in both Britain and America
*They opposed slavery and favored decent treatment of Native Americans
*Elements of this culture would play a role in shaping the characterization of a United States that values independence and social equality

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William Penn

1644-1718
*Founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for his fellow Quakers
*Penn advertised his colony widely in Europe and offered generous terms on land
*Guaranteed a representative assembly and full religious freedom
Settlers flocked to Pennsylvania from all over Europe

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Black Slaves in the 1600s

1600s
*Because black slaves were only a small percentage of the population, they began at almost the same level as indentured servants
*Later in the century, increased importation and population of blacks in the southern colonies began
*Slaves, called "chattel," came to be seen as lifelong property whose status would be inherited by their children

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John Locke and Natural Law

1632-1704
*Locke was a major English political philosopher of the Enlightenment
*Isaac Newton theorized Natural Law in the realm of science, and Locke followed him, trying to identify Natural Law in the human realm
*Prior to Locke, there existed a theory of social contract in which people would accept certain restrictions on themselves for the benefit of their society, and these restrictions would be upheld by a sovereign power
*Locke's assertion of Natural Law changed the perspective of the social contract theory; he believed that if life, liberty, and property were not protected, governments could be overthrown justly
*Locke's ideas became the indirect theory of American political activity for leaders such as Benjamin Franklin, and they influenced Thomas Jefferson in writing Declaration of Independence

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Triangular Trade (Atlantic Trade)

1600s
*Created as a result of mercantilism
*European merchants purchased African slaves with goods manufactured in Europe or imported from Asian colonies
*These merchants sold slaves in the Caribbean for commodities (sugar, cotton, tobacco)
*Caribbean commodities were later sold in Europe and North America
*Trade thrived because each partner could get the resources it wanted by exchanging resources that it had available

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Navigation Acts

1650-1673
*Dictated ther certain goods shipped from a New World from a New World port were to go only to Britain or to another New World port
*Served as the foundation of England's worldwide commercial system; came out of the economic philosophy of mercantilism
*Though it was meant to benefit the whole British Empire, its provisions helped some New World colonies at the expense of others
*Intended as a weapon in England's ongoing struggle against its rival, Holland
*Led to increased tension between Britain and the colonies

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Effects of the Navigation Acts

1650-1673
*Boosted the prosperity of New Englanders, who engaged in large-scale shipbuilding
*Hurt the residents of the Chesapeake by driving down the price of tobacco
*Transferred wealth from America to Britain by increasing the prices Americans had to pay for British goods and lowering the prices Americans received for the goods they produced
*Mercantilism also helped bring on a series of wars between England and Holland in the late 1600s

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Bacon's Rebellion

1676
*Virginia's Royal governor, William Berkeley, received strict instructions to run the colony for the benefit of Britain
*Nathaniel Bacon was a leader of colonial frontiersmen in Virginia
*Bacon objected to the rights granted to Virginia's wealthy inner circle and was angered by Governor Berkeley's inability to protect Virginia from attacks by the Native Americans
*Bacon commanded two unauthorized raids on Native American tribes, increasing his popularity; Berkeley had him arrested
*Soon after, Bacon gathered his forces, opposed the Royal governor, and set fire to Jamestown to defend his forces' position
*Berkeley ended the rebellion with the aid of British military forces
*After Bacon's rebellion, American colonies turned increasingly away from indentured servants and toward slave labor

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New Hampshire

Corporate colony established 1677
*King Charles II established it as a Royal colony
*The colony remained economically dependent on Massachusetts, and Britain continued to appoint a single person to rule both colonies until 1741
*Weeks before the signing of the Declaration of Independence by the Second Continental Congress, New Hampshire established a temporary constitution for itself that proclaimed its independence from Britain

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Dominion of New England

1686-1689
*An administrative body created by King James II that oversaw British colonies in the New England region
*Put in place to implement the Navigation Acts and to assist the colonies in defending themselves against hostile French and Native American forces
*The Dominion Governor-in-Chief, Edmund Andros, outlawed town meetings, disputed titles to certain colonial lands, and proselytized on behalf of the Church of England
*New England colonists had originally been in favor of some sort of voluntary association, but the Dominion was very unpopular because of these types of impositions

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Half-Way Covenant

1690s
*Decision by Puritan colony churches to allow the grandchildren of those who did not have the personal experience of conversion to participate in select church affairs
*Previously, only the children of those who had experienced conversion could participate
*Reflected the decline of zealous piety among New Englanders

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Salem Witch Trials

1692
*Several young girls in Salem Village claimed to be tormented by the occult activities of certain neighbors
*Some twenty persons were executed
*Puritan ministers finally intervened to stop the executions
*Different theories about the reasons that the trials occurred: political and class divisions in Salem; economic stresses from providing for growing families; the gender-biased view that women were more likely to follow evil
*Writer Arthur Miller produced The Crucible (1953), a retelling of Salem Witch Trials and a reflective commentary on the witch-hunts of Joseph McCarthy

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The Enlightenment

1700s
*Connects to the idea of Deism, in which the universe was created by God and then abandoned; no supernatural controls would be exerted and all things were explainable by reason
*Enlightenment philosophy dictated that human reason was adequate to solve mankind's problems and, correspondingly, much less faith was needed in the central role of God as an active force in the universe
*Idea moved from Europe to become the New World's seed of cultures intellectualism, and society
*Some important Enlightenment writers include Isaac Newton (Principia Mathematica, 1687), John Locke (Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1689), and Rene Descartes, whose basic tenet of philosophical theory existed in the phrase "I think, therefore, I am."

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Georgia

Chartered in 1732
*James Oglethorpe, an English philanthropist and soldier, charted the colony
*Settlers included those who paid their own way to receive the best land grants
*Some settlers were financed by the colony's board of trustees, including bands of prisoners from British jails
*After wars between the European empires began, the colony served as a buffer between South Carolina and Spanish-held Florida
*Elaborate and detailed regulations resulted in relatively little settlement

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John Peter Zenger

1697-1746
*German American newspaper publisher and printer
*His acquittal of libel charges in New York City(1735) established a legal precedent for freedom of the press
*The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Warren (1953-1969) would later reinvigorate free press rights
*The case of New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) strengthened the protection of the press against libel cases brought by public figures

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The First Great Awakening

1720s-1740s
*A series of emotional religious revivals that occurred throughout the colonies (prevalent in New England)
*Preachers spread a message of personal repentance and emphasized faith as a way to avoid hell
*Suggested an equality between God and the Bible
*George Whitefield and Jonathon Edwards became its most dynamic preachers
*While the Awakening created conflict among those who argued about religion, its ideas helped build connections between the colonies
*More denominations of Christianity were formed
*A number of colleges were founded by those who accepted the Great Awakening, including Princeton, Brown, and Rutgers

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Jonathon Edwards

1703-1758
*Preacher of the Great Awakening who emphasized personal religious experience, predestination, and dependence of man upon God and divine grace
*One of his widely read sermons was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
*While Edwards is known for being one of the most prominent Calvinists, the Great Awakening was partially responsible for refuting the idea that salvation was only possible with predestined election, an important Calvinist belief

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French and Indian War

1754-1763
*Rivalry between France, Britain, and various Native American tribes over land in the Ohio region
*It was one of a series of wars fought between France and England throughout the world at the time
*Battles continued on European and American fronts until Britain gained control of Canada
*It was in these conflicts that George Washington first appeared as an able military leader

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Albany Plan

1754
*Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for collective defense
*The Pennsylvanian delegate, Benjamin Franklin, proposed a plan for an intercolonial government, but the plan was rejected by the colonial legislatures as demanding too great a surrender of power
*While the other colonies showed to support for Franklin's plan, it was an important precedent for the concept of uniting in the face of a common enemy

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William Pitt

1708-1778
*Britain's capable and energetic prime minister
*After several humiliating defeats, he led Britain to virtually destroy the French empire in North America by focusing on the French headquarters in Canada
*The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended hostilities

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Treaty of Paris 1763

1763
*Ended Seven Years War
*From France, Britain took Canada and some of what would become the United States east of the Mississippi River
*France lost all of its North American holdings
*Spain took the Louisiana Territory
*Treaty marked the end of salutary neglect, a relationship in which the British Parliament had somewhat ignored the colonies, allowing them to develop their character without interference

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Impact of the French and Indian War on British Colonial Policy

1712-1770
*Britain set out to solve the large national debt incurred in recent conflicts
*It created a series of acts that raised taxes on American goods, leading to rebellious activities in the colonies
*Acts included the Proclamation of 1763, Sugar Act (1763), Stamp Act (1765), and Quartering Act (1765)

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Benjamin Franklin

1706-1790
*Was a colonial writer, scientist, diplomat, printer, and philosopher
Published the Pennsylvania Gazette and wrote Poor Richard's Almanac
*Served in the Second Continental Congress and was a drafter and signer of the Declaration of Independence

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Writs of Assistance

1750s-1770s
*Court orders that authorized customs officials to conduct non-specific searches to stop colonial smuggling
*Allowed for the searching of homes, warehouses, and shops
*James Otis served as a prosecutor in a failed Massachusetts legal case; he argued that these searched were contrary to natural law
*Later, the Fourth Amendment would protect citizens against "unreasonable searched and seizures"

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Proclamation of 1763

1763
*Was a result of pontiac's Rebellion, a Native American uprising against the British for their mistreatment
*Forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians to reduce friction between Native Americans and the settlers
*Stated that Native Americans owned the land on which they were residing
*Outraged colonists believed that the successful outcome of the French and Indian War should have allowed settlement in the Ohio Valley

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Sugar Act

1764
*It taxed goods imported to America to raise revenue for England
Meant to assist England in recouping the debt it had taken on during the French and Indian War
*Strictly enforced, unlike the Molasses Act of 1733
*Taxed goods included imports such as wine, cloth, coffee, and silk

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Quartering Act

1765
*Act that required the colonies in which British troops were stationed provide soldiers with bedding and other basic needs
*Colonists reacted negatively because they feared having a standing army in their towns, and they disliked the additional expenses it caused
*After the emergence of the United States Constitution, the Third Amendment protected citizens against the stationing of troops in their homes

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Stamp Act

1765
*An internal tax, the sole purpose of which was to raise revenue
*Required Americans to use "stamped" paper for legal documents, newspapers, and playing cards, among other goods
*Revenue from this tax was to be used solely for the support of the British soldiers protecting the colonies

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Declaratory Act

1766
*Act giving Britain the power to tax and make laws for Americans in all cases
*Followed the repeal of the Stamp Act, which colonists had seen as a victory
*The Declaratory Act suggested that Britain might pass more restrictive acts in the near future

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Samuel Adams

1722-1803
*Revolutionary resistance leader in Massachusetts
*Along with Paul Revere, he headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts
*Worked with the committees of correspondence, which provided communication about resistance among colonies
*Attended both the First and Second Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence

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Stamp Act Congress

October 1765
*Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for defense
*Adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that freeborn Englishmen could not be taxed without their consent

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Townshend Acts

1767
*Created by British Prime Minister Charles Townshend (Grenville's replacement)
*Formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies, such as paper, lead, glass, and tea
*Replaced the direct taxes of Stamp Act
*Led to boycotts by Boston merchants and served as a key contributor to the Boston Massacre

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Virtual Representation

1770s
*English principle stating that the members of members of parliament represented all of Britain and the British Empire, even though members were only elected by a small number of constituents
*This idea was meant to be a response to the colonial claim of "no taxation without representation," meaning that parliament was itself representation of those being taxed

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Boston Massacre

March 5, 1770
*Occurred when the British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts
*British soldiers killed five Bostonians, including Crispus Attucks, an American patriot and former slave
*John Adams provided the legal defense for the soldiers
*Though the British soldiers acted more or less in self-defense, anti-Royal leaders used the massacre to spur action in the colonies

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Tea Act and Boston Tea Party

1773
*The Tea Act was a concession that allowed the British East India Company to ship tea directly to America and sell it at a bargain
*Because the cheap tea undercut the costs of local merchants, colonists opposed these shipments; they turned back ships, left shipments to rot, and held ships in port
*Led to the Boston Tea Party in December of 1773, where citizens, dressed as Native Americans, destroyed tea on the British ships

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The Intolerable Acts (The Coercive Acts)

1774
*Names given by colonists to the Quebec Act (1774) and to a series of acts by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party
*Closed the Port of Boston to all trade until citizens paid for the lost tea
*Increased the power of Massachusetts' Royal governor at the expense of the legislature
*Allowed Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts to be tried elsewhere

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Methods of Colonial Resistance

1770s
*Colonists reacted first with restrained and respectful petitions against the British, suggesting "taxation without representation is tyranny"
*Colonial governments organized "committees of correspondence" to share their view of British actions with neighboring colonies and with foreign governments; this was the start of political organization among the colonies
*Colonial merchants then boycotted British goods (non-importation)
*Colonists finally turned to violence; crowds took action against customs officials and against merchants who violated boycotts
*Some colonists continued to follow British command and became English "Loyalists"

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First Continental Congress

September-October 1774
*Meeting in Philadelphia of colonial representatives to denounce the Intolerable Acts and to petition the British Parliament
*A few radical members discussed breaking from England
*Created Continental Association and forbade the importation and use of British goods
*Agreed to convene a Second Continental Congress in May 1775

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Battles of Concord and Lexington

April 1775
*Concord: Site suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weaponry
*Paul Revere, William Dawes, and others detected movement of British troops toward Concord and warned militia and gathered Minutemen at Lexington
Lexington: Militia and Royal infantry fought, and the colonial troops withdrew

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The Second Continental Congress

May 1775
*Colonial representative meeting in Philadelphia, over which John Hancock presided
*The group was torn between declaring independence and remaining under British power
*Moderates forced the adoption of the Olive Branch Petition, a letter to King George III appealing one final time for a resolution to all disputes; the king refused to receive it
*The Congress sent George Washington to command the army around Boston
*American ports were opened in defiance of the Navigation Acts
*The Congress wrote the Declaration of Independence

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Battle of Bunker Hill

June 17, 1775
*Bunker Hill was an American post overlooking Boston
*The stronghold allowed Americans to contain General Gage and his troops
*The colonists twice turned back a British frontal assault, and they held off the British until the Bunker Hill force ran out of ammunition and was overrun
*American strong defense led to strengthened morale

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Common Sense

January 1776
*Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that called for immediate independence from Britain
*It was sold throughout the colonies, where it gained popularity
*Helped weaken resistance in the Continental Congress toward independence

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Lee's Resolutions

1776
*Presented to Second Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
*Urged Congress to declare independence and were accepted July 2, 1776
*Said, "That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States"

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73

Declaration of Independence

Adopted July 4, 1776
*Document restating political ideas justifying the separation from Britain
*Thomas Jefferson and his committee had the duty of drafting for the Continental Congress
*John Locke's influences served as a foundation for this document
*The final product lacked provisions condemning the British slave trade and a denunciation of the British people that earlier drafts had contained

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Articles of Confederation

Submitted July 1776; ratified 1781
*Framework for an American national government in which states were given the most power
*Permitted the federal government to make war, offer treaties, and create new states
*There was no federal power to levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce
*Congressional revision of the articles created a weak national government

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George Washington's Leadership in the American Revolution

1775-1781
*Named Commander-in-Chief of Continental Forces in June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress
*Forced British to evacuate Boston in March 1776
*Defeated British at Trenton, New Jersey, after crossing the Delaware on December 25, 1776
*Survived tough winter at Valley Forge(1777-1778); Washington strengthened his troops during the winter and gained tremendous respect among the men
*General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on October 19, 1781

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76

Battle of Saratoga

1777
*American REvolution battle fought in northern New York
*The British planned to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River, but they failed to mobilize properly
*The British ended up surrendering, allowing for the first great American victory
*Demonstrated that the British could more easily hold the cities, but that they would have trouble subduing the countrysides
*Considered a turning point, as French aid began after this battle

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77

Charles Cornwallis

1738-1805
*British military and political leader
*Was a member of Parliament
*Opposed the tax measures that ed to the American Revolution
*Led British forces during the American Revolution
*The British defeat culminated with Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown in 1781

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Western Land Cessions

1781-1787; Georgia in 1802
*The original thirteen states ceded their western land claims to the new federal government
*The states that lacked western land claims feared that states with claims could grow in size, skewing representation in the federal government
*Before signing the United States Constitution, these states demanded that those with claims cede the land
*Ordinances in 1784 and 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance (1787) organized the ceded areas in preparation for statehood
*New states were organized and admitted to the Union
*This policy strengthened the ties of the western farmers to the central government

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Treaty of Paris, 1783

1783
*Peace settlement that ended the Revolutionary War
*The United States was represented by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay
*Britain recognized the United States' independence and outlined its borders
*The United States received all lands east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, and south of the Great Lakes
*The United States agreed that Loyalists were not to be persecuted

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Land Ordinance of 1785; Northwest Ordinance of 1787

1785;1787
*The Land Ordinance was an act of Congress that sold western lands in order to settle that territory and to earn revenue for the federal government
*The Land Ordinance organized the distribution of land into townships and set aside a section of each township to be used for public education
*The Northwest Ordinance described how the land north of the Ohio River should be divided and helped to create five new states
*The Northwest Ordinance held that states would be admitted to the Union when the number of free inhabitants reached 60,000; slavery and involuntary servitude were not allowed in these states
*The Northwest Ordinance set a precedent of how states could join the Union and stood as a successful accomplishment by a federal government that had been seen before as ineffective

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81

John Jay

1745-1829
*Member of First and Second Continental Congress
*Negotiated Treaty of Paris and Jay's Treaty
*First Chief Justice of Supreme Court
*Wrote portions of The Federalist Papers

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Shay's Rebellion

1786-1787
*During a period of economic depression, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a farmer's land and enacting debt collection
*Citizens of Boston raised an army and suppressed the rebels
*Americans felt pressure to strengthen the government and avoid future violence
*The rebellion served as a catalyst for writing the Constitution

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The Constitution of the United States

Signed September 17, 1787; ratified by the required nine states June 21, 1788
*Drafted at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787
*Included a preamble and seven articles
*Created a stronger federal government
*The Bill of Rights constitutes the first ten amendments, and it protects individual rights and freedoms

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Elastic Clause and the Tenth Amendment

Ratified 1791
*The Tenth Amendment restricts the federal government to those powers delegated to it by the Constitution and gives all other powers to the states, or the people
*Article I, Section 8 grants the federal government the power to make all laws "which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers"
*The conflict between these two ideas is the determination of which group, the federal government or the states and their people, has the right to exercise powers that have not been expressly delegated to the central government

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85

The Virginia Plan & The New Jersey Plan

July 1787
*Virginia plan: Presented by Edmund Randolph and written by James Madison, it called for a bicameral legislature based on a state's population, and it suggested that both the chief executive and judiciary should be chosen by legislature
*New Jersey Plan: Presented by William Patterson, it called for a unicameral legislature with equal representation for each state
*The plans were united in the Great Compromise
*They formed the basis of the modern American legislative structure

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86

Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)

1787
*Called for a bicameral legislative system in which the House of Representatives would be based on population and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress
*Combined pieces of the New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan, and other proposals
*Included the Three-Fifths Compromise, which counted slaves as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of apportioning representation and called for direct taxation on the states

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87

Federalists

1788
*Americans who advocated centralized power and constitutional ratification
*Used The Federalist Papers to demonstrate how the Constitution was designed to prevent the abuse of power
*Supporters of Federalist platforms included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, and northeastern business groups
*Federalists believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to it by the Constitution (they had a "loose interpretation" of the Constitution)

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Anti-Federalists

1780s-1790s
*Those against the adoption of the Constitution; they were suspicious of political actions that would limit freedom and of a centralized government that would rule at a distance
*George Mason, Patrick Henry, and George Clinton were Anti-Federalists
*Many of the Anti-Federalists would come to oppose the policies of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists
*The Jeffersonian Republican Party absorbed many of the Anti-Federalists after the Constitution was adopted

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George Washington

1789-1797
*First President
*Was unanimously elected
*Served two terms
*His leadership led to a standard of a strong presidency with control of foreign policy and the power to veto Congress's legislation
*Declared the Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793, keeping the United States neutral in the European wars
*His Farewell Address in 1796 warned against entangling alliances, recommended isolationism, and warned of political party factions

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Judiciary Act of 1789

1789
*Provided for a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associates
*Established the office of the Attorney General
*Created federal district courts and circuits courts

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91

Alexander Hamilton

1757-1804
*First Secretary of Treasury
*Proposed the federal assumption of state debts, the establishment of a national bank, and the federal simulation of industry through excise tax and tariffs
*Opponents, including Jefferson, saw his programs as aiding a small, elite group at the expense of the average citizen
*Hamilton died from wounds sustained in a pistol duel with Aaron Burr, Jefferson's vice president

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Jeffersonian Republicans (Democratic Republicans)

1792-1860
*Political party that absorbed the Anti-Federalists
*Proponents included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
*Favored states' rights and power in the hands of commoners; supported by Southern agriculture and frontiersmen
*Believed that the federal government was denied all powers that were not expressly given to it by the Constitution (a "strict interpretation" of the document)
*Supported the French Revolution's ideals, but they were against the Revolution's bloody radicalism

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93

Eli Whitney

1765-1825
*Inventor and manufacturer
*Invented the cotton gin in 1793, revolutionizing the cotton industry and increasing the need for slaves
*Established the first factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable, standardized parts
*His innovations led to an "American system" of manufacture, where those laborers with less skill could use tools and templates to make identical parts; also, the manufacture and assembly of parts could be done separately

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94

Jay's Treaty

1794
*An attempt to settle the conflict between the United States and England over commerce, navigation, and violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1783
*Provided for eventual evacuation by the British of their posts in the Northwest, but it allowed them to continue their fur trade
*Allowed for the establishment of commissions to settle United States-Canadian border disputes and United States- Britain losses during the Revolutionary War
*The generous terms to Britain upset Americans because these were promises that had been made and not fulfilled in the Treaty of Paris of 1783

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95

Whiskey Rebellion

1794
*Western whiskey farmers refused to pay taxes on which Hamilton's revenue program was based
*A group of farmers terrorized the tax collectors, and Washington responded with a federalized militia
*George Washington and Alexander Hamilton rode out to Pennsylvania themselves to emphasize their commitment
*First test of federal authority
*Established federal government's right to enforce laws

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Pickney Treaty

1795
*Signed by the United States and Spain
*Free navigation of the Mississippi River was given to the United States
*United States gained area north of Florida that had been in dispute (present-day Mississippi and Alabama)
*Gave western farmers the "right of deposit" in the New Orleans, enabling them to use the port for their goods and making it easier for them to get their goods to the east
*The United States would later make the Louisiana Purchase, which would cement this right of deposit

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97

Early American Literature and Art

1600s-1700s
*Early writings promoted the benefits of colonization to both Europeans and to the colonies themselves; authors included John Smith and William Penn
*Religious issues and the Great Awakening provided material for written works by John Winthrop, Edward Winslow, Roger williams, Jonathon Edwards, and George Whitefield
*The political issues of revolution influenced writing in the mid-1700s, including works by Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Paine
*Post-war writings such as The Federalist Papers explored the system of American values and governmental structure
*The first American novel, published in 1789, was William Hill Brown's The Power of Sympathy
*Art copied European styles but featured portraits of important Americans; famous artists included John Trumbull, Charles Peale, Benjamin West, and John Copley
*Gilbert Stuart painted the portrait of George Washington that is now on the one-dollar bill

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John Adams

1797-1800
*Second President
*First Vice President
*Diplomat and signer of the Declaration of Independence
*Led the country through the XYZ affair, the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
*Kept the nation from war during his tenure as president

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XYZ Affair

1798
*The United States wanted an end to French harassment of American shipping
*To settle the issue, French representatives demanded a bribe from the United States just to open negotiations with French Minister Talleyrand
*The United States refused the bribe and suspended trade with the French
*Led to the creation of the American Navy

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Alien and Sedition Acts

1798-1799
*Legislation enacted by the Federalists to reduce foreign influenced and increase their power
*New hurdles to citizenship were established
*Broadened power to quiet print media critics
*The legislation was used to silence Jeffersonian Republican critics of the Federalists and was indicative of the poisoned relations between the two groups
*These acts tested the strength of the First Amendment and limited the freedom of the press
*The Federalists gained a reputation as being a less democratic group, quickening their demise as a political organization

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