Clinical and developmental psychology Basics

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Echolalia

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Psychotherapies Psychopathology medicine diagnostic manuals importnat figures Developmental

930 Terms

1

Echolalia

Psychopathological repeating of words or phrases of one person by another; tends to be repetitive and persistant. Seen in certain kinds of Schizophrenia, particularly catatonic (CTP). 

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2

Echopraxia

Repetition by imitation of the movements of another. The action is not a willed or voluntary one and has a semiautomatic and uncontrollable quality

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3

patient has, affect

mood is what——- and ——-is what clinician observe

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4

gestures, body movements, and facial expressions

What do we observe in the body to know the affect in clinic

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5

anxious,

irritable,

depressed,

elevated,

euphoric,

euthymic

The quality of affect can be:

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6
  1. Quality

  2. Intensity

  3. Range

  4. Labile

  5. communicability

  6. appropriateness

  7. Diurnal variation

  8. mobility of affect,

  9. Reactivity,

9 Different ways to assess affect in the session?

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7

Diurnal variation of affect

The change in affect occuring with passage of the day. (Worse in morning, Worse in the evening, Worse at night)

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Orientation

State of awareness of oneself and one’s surrounding in terms of time, place and person in the clinical set up shows what?

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Acceleration of thoughts

When Flow of thinking becomes rapid and increase in amount it is called

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10

Pressure of speech

Detailed under heading of Speech- Speed)- Increase in the amount of spontaneous speech, rapid, loud, accelerated speech.

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Flight of ideas

Thoughts follow each other rapidly; there is no general direction of thinking; and the connections between successive thoughts appear to be due to chance factors which, however, can usually be understood

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Prolixity

‘Ordered flight of ideas’ or excessive wordiness or verbosity in speech or writing

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13

Bradypherenia (retardation)

  • the train of thought is slowed down and the number of ideas and mental images which present themselves is decreased. 

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14

Poverty of speech

  • Restriction in amount of speech used; replies might be monosymbolic. Also called laconic speech.

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Circumstantiality

Thinking proceeds slowly with many unnecessary and trivial details, but finally the point is reached

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Tangentiality

Refers to replying to a question in an oblique, tangential or even irrelevant manner does reach answer

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17

Thought blocking

When there is a sudden arrest of the train of thoughts leaving the patient with a blank mind state, it is called?

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18

Recent memory

Asking what’s your name or what medicine did you eat today is an example of testing what memory

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19

Remote memory

asking when did you pass the graduation or when was your marriage is example of testing what memory?

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Immediate Memory and New Learning

“I am going to ask you to remember three words (color, object, animal – e.g., blue, table, and horse) and I will ask you to repeat them to me in 5 minutes.

This is an example of what assessment in clinic?

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21

form of a thought

The arrangement of parts in a thought is called its?

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22

formal thought disorder

Disturbance in the form of thought are called

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23

Negative and positive type

Which are 2 types of formal disorder?

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24

Negative type formal disorder

When the patient is looses his previous ability to think and cannot produce a concept, What is the disorder

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Positive type formal disorder

When patient produces false concept by blending together incongruous elements that is —- disorder
hallmark diagnostic feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and (bipolar) mania

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Neologism

a newly coined word, phrase, or expression that has not yet become widely accepted or recognized in the language.

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27

Obsessive thoughts

The symptom of Persistent and recurrent intrusive thoughts that cannot be eliminated from consciousness by logic or reasoning.

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Rumination

repetitive thinking or dwelling on negative feelings and distress and their causes and consequences. and this is less intrusive

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Compulsion

Obsessional motor acts are called?

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Thought alienation

Patient has the experience that his thoughts are under the control of an outside agency or that others are participating in his thinking

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31

Hallucination

A false perception which is not a sensory distortion or a misrepresentation, but which occurs at the same time as real perceptions. (Jasper).

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32

Stereotypy/ excitement

non-goal directed action, which is carried out in a uniform way (Fish); Repetitive, seemingly driven and non-functional motor behaviour is termed as?
Seen in Autism

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33

Aphasia

A language disorder that affects a person's ability to communicate.

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34

Alogia

the inability to speak because of cognitive impairment, mental confusion, or aphasia/ Impoverishment of thought

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Assertive therapay

A type of psychotherapy that focuses on developing communication skills and self-confidence to help individuals express their thoughts and feelings in a direct and respectful manner.

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36

Biofeedback therapy

A therapy technique involving monitoring patient’s physical processing and then helps to reduce them for wellbeing

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37

Dual instinct theory

Freudian theory saying Primary instincts (Eros) and death instincts (Thanatos) exist together correspond and clash with each other in a lifelong struggle.

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38

Instinct

What is a form of energy—transformed physiological energy—that connects the needs of the body with the wishes of the mind. according to Freud

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Eros and sex, nurturance, affection

What is and what are examples of primary life insticts according to Freud?

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40

Thanatos

What is instincts for death and destruction according to Freud?

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41

topographical model of mind

What is the model of mind saying it could be divided into three regions: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Propounded by Freud

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42

Superego

What emerges when self-control replaces parental- control

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43

Diffidence

an extreme lack of self-trust or self-confidence and is expressed as shyness or hesitancy to express oneself.

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44

Defiance

stubbornly hold to socially unacceptable beliefs and practices simply because these beliefs and practices are unacceptable to the self.

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45

Telegraphic speech

a type of speech in which a child uses short, simple sentences without articles or conjunctions. It typically occurs around age 2-3.

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46

REgression

psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

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47

Repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

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48

phenylketonoria/ PKU

A human metabolic disease caused by a mutation in a gene coding carried by both parents (Recessive) for a phenylalanine processing enzyme leads to accumulation of phenylalanine and mental retardation if not treated

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49

Trait anxiety

a stable personality characteristic showing the tendency to feel consistently worried, nervousness, anxious across various situations.

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50

Cystic fibrosis

A genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems.

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51
  1. CNS development

  2. movement capacity

  3. Intention of the child

  4. Environment

What are 4 major factors that influences a new skill in motor development

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52

Hydrophobia

Fear of water

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53

Tay sachs

a fatal genetic disease that causes fatty material to build up in the nerves and brain

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54

Spatial neglect

Condition where individuals have difficulty attending to or noticing stimuli on one side of space, typically due to brain damage.
It can affect perception, attention, and awareness.

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55

Multimodal therapy

intended to optimize treatment of brain disorders by delivering different types of therapy together

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56

Right hemisphere

When a split brain patient is presented with an image in the left visual field, which hemisphere of the brain primarily processes this information?

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57

Split brain

A structure known as the corpus callosum connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and enables communication between them. Dysfunction or absence of this structure can result in a condition known as?

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58

Organisation

The internal cognitive process, according to Piaget, in which children form and rearrange new schemas and creating new interconnected more strong cognitive system?

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59

Nature

In Developmental psychology the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions is called______

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60

Nurture

the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.?

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61

Personology

Study of personality from the holistic point of view, based on the theory that an individual's actions and reactions, thoughts and feelings, and personal and social functioning can be understood only in terms of the whole person

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62

Labile affect

Rapid changes/Fluctuation in emotions that are often exaggerated or inappropriate in intensity. It is commonly seen in conditions such as bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and certain neurological disorders.

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63

Self defeating personality disorder

A psychological disorder characterized by patterns of self-sabotaging behavior, often leading to failure or disappointment. Individuals with this disorder may resist success or reject help, ultimately hindering their own progress.

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64

Avoidant personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by anxiety in social situations and personal relationships, with feelings of inadequacy and extreme sensitivity to rejection or criticism.

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65

Dependent personality disorder

a type of anxious personality disorder where the affected often feel helpless, submissive and incapable of taking care of themselves. They may have trouble making simple decisions.

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66

Boarderline personality disorder

A personality disorder characterised by pervasive pattern of impulsivity, personal unstable relationship, trouble with self image and affect

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67

Thematic appreciation test (TAT)

a projective psychological test where individuals interpret ambiguous scenes to reveal underlying thoughts, feelings, and motives.
It assesses personality and unconscious aspects.
(Morgan and murray)

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68

Draw a person (DAP)

a psychological projective personality or cognitive test in which the test subject uses simple art supplies to produce depictions of people

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Rorschach test

a psychological test where individuals interpret inkblots to reveal their thoughts and emotions. It's used to assess personality traits and emotional functioning.

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70

Reciprocal determinism

The belief that personality is created by the interaction between a person, their behaviour and their environment proposed by Bandura?

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71

Extraversion

One personality trait that is thought to be highly heritable is?

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72

5 chromatic 5 achromatic

How many chromatic and achromatic in rorschach cards?

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73

Kent rossen off word association test

a test of personality and mental function in which the subject is required to respond to each of a series of words with the first word that comes to mind or with a word of a specified class of words

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74

Anthropometric measurement

noninvasive quantitative measurements of the body.

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75

Alexander pass along test of intelligence

Performance Scale for assessing abstract and concrete abilities, devised by WP Alexander c. 1946; consisting of Cube Construction Tests, Block Design Test and Passalong Test;

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76

Thought insertion

in schizophrenia involves somehow experiencing one's own thoughts as someone else's. thoughts being controlled or inserted into their mind by an external force or entity.

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77

Thought withdrawal

the delusion that thoughts have been taken out of the patient's mind. It often accompanies thought blocking. The patient may experience a break in the flow of their thoughts believing that the missing thoughts have been withdrawn from their mind by some outside agency.

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Thought broadcasting

A delusion that before we talk about what we think, everybody knows it. Everybody has access to the thought

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79

Thought insertion, Thought withdrawal, thought broadcasting

What are types of thought alienation?

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80

Schneiderian first-rank symptom/ first-rank phenomena/ first rank symptom / FRS

- - - - symptoms are considered important in the diagnosis of schizophrenia because they are highly specific to psychotic disorders and are less likely to occur in other psychiatric conditions.

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81

Schneiderian first-rank symptom/ first-rank phenomena/ first rank symptom / FRS

Any form of thought alienation is a ———symptom, highly indicative of schizophrenia.

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82

Eudemonia

a state of well-being or flourishing that encompasses a sense of purpose, fulfillment, and optimal functioning across various domains of life focusing personal growth, virtue, and fulfilling one's potential.

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83

hedonic

The wellbeing and the type of happiness or contentment that is achieved when pleasure, satisfaction of desires, and self-interests are obtainedand pain is avoided.

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84

pleasure, meaning/Virtue)

Hedonic is something that pursues —- to achieve happiness. Eudaimonic is something that pursues —— to achieve happiness long term.

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85

Hedonic

Maximizing pleasure
Prioritize enjoyable experiences
Short-term gratification are examples of —— well being

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emotional wellbeing

What focuses on emotions and feelings and Refers to the state of one's emotions, including happiness, contentment, and ability to manage stress and challenges effectively.

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emotional wellbeing

a good Emotional regulation, stress management, positive emotions, coping strategies are examples of —- wellbeing

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Social wellbeing

- —— well being focuses on social Relationships and social connections and refers to the quality of relationships, social support networks, and sense of belonging in communities or groups.

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Psychological wellbeing

- — - - wellbeing refers to overall mental health and resilience, including self-esteem, purpose in life, personal growth, and sense of autonomy and control.

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90

Psychological wellbeing

What is the term of wellbeing given to 'autonomy or being determining, independent and able to resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways ?

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91

Depreciation

If a person may constantly criticize themselves or downplay their achievements to protect their self-esteem showing which defece mechanism

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92

Auditory, olfactory, tactile, visual, Gustatory

What are the primary modes of hallucination

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93

Thought echo, second person, running commentary

What are the 3 common types of hallucination occuring

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94

Somatic passivity

The belief that outside influences are playing on the body. The patient is a passive and invariably a reluctant recipient of bodily sensations imposed upon him by some external agency

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95

Volition

What do one check in MSE about how a person feels about the actions and behaviours related to their body

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96

Made act

The patient has a cognitive beleif that he experiences his actions as being completely under the control of an external influence. The movements are initiated and directed throughout by the controlling influence, and the patient feels he is an automaton, the passive observer of his own actions.

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97

Made affect

When a patient feels whatever they are feeling is putting by some external source

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98

Made impulse

The cognitive beleif that impulse to carry out this action is not felt to be his own, but the actual performance of the act is, i.e. the action is admitted to be the patient’s own, but he feels that the impulse that precipitated him into doing it was not his own

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99

Insight

What is the patient’s current awareness about their condition is called—— in MSE

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delusion of reference

The delusion says neutral or unrelated events, objects, or actions in the environment are somehow specifically directed at them or have a special significance related to them personally.

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