IB Biology - 6.3. Defense against infectious diseases

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Blood clot

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47 Terms

1

Blood clot

a semi-solid lulmp from liquid blood that is used to seal the cut in the blood vessels and prevent further entry of pathogens into the bloodstream.

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2

Platelets

Are cell fragments present in blood that help create a blood clot upon injury.

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3

Clotting factors

Molecules produced by damaged tissued and platelets which set off a cascade of events that lead to the formation of a blood clot.

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4

Pathogen

Disease-causing organism.

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5

Types of pathogens

Virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa

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6

Virus

Acellular. Need a host cell to carry out functions of life. Can have DNA or RNA. Can cause flu, HIV, measels, common cold, herpes, etc.

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Bacteria

Prokaryotes, divide by binary fission. Can cause food poisoning, ear infections, cholera, etc.

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Fungi

Eukaryotes, reproduce with spores. Can cause athlete's foot, ringworm, allergic reactions, etc.

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9

Protozoa

Simple parasites. Can cause malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, etc.

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10

Lines of defense against pathogens

Physical barrier: skin, mucous membranes. Blood cells: phagocytes.

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11

Atherosclerosis

Degenerative disease in which areas of the artery wall become damaged. Cholesterol builds up in these damaged areas, restricting blood flow.

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12

Coronary heart disease

If clots occur in myocardial tissue. Coronary muscle tissue dies as a result of a lack of blood and oxygen.

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13

Phagocytes

Attaches to the pathogen's cell surface and engulfs it. White blood cells.

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14

Pasogome

Vesicle that contains the pathogen.

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15

Lymphocytes

Breaks down the pathogen. White blood cells, specific immunity. Can activate other lymphocytes or produce antibodies.

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16

Antigen

A substance or molecule that causes antibody formation. Non-self.

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17

Antibody

A globular protein that recognizes a specific antigen and binds to it as part of an immune response.

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18

Clonal selection

A specific lymphocyte makes many clones of itself to produce antibodies to a specific pathogen.

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19

Memory cells

Creates immunity.

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20

Antibiotic

Drugs used in the treatment and prevention of prokaryotic bacteria. Designed to disrupt structures or metabolic pathways in bacteria and fungi. Ineffective against viruses

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21

Antibiotic resistance

Indiscriminate use of antibiotics leads to this.

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22

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

Gradually attacks the immune system. Retrovirus.

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AIDS

A syndrome caused by HIV.

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24

Specific immunity

Triggered by lymphocytes, which produce a response when in contact with a specific pathogen.

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25

Mucous membrane

Parts of the skin covered in a secretion called mucous, keeps the skin moist and prevents growth of bacteria.

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26

Red blood cells

Can be passed between individuals without causing immune rejection, but they do posses basic antigen markers. (ABO system).

<p>Can be passed between individuals without causing immune rejection, but they do posses basic antigen markers. (ABO system).</p>
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27

Disease

Any condition that disturbs the normal functioning of the body.

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28

Illness

Deterioration in the normal state of health of an organism.

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29

Disease transmission

Direct contact, contamination, airborne, vectors.

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30

Antibody actions

Precipitation, Agglutination, Neutralization, Inflammation, Complement activation.

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Allergen

Environmental substance that triggers an immune response despite not being intrinsically harmful.

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32

Histamine

Causes allergic reactions (such as inflammation).

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Vaccination

Induce long-term immunity to specific pathogenic infections by stimulating the production of memory cells

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Types of vaccines

Live attenuated, inactivated, toxoid, subunit/conjugated, RNA

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35

Epidemic

Increased occurrence of a particular infection within a given region.

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Pandemic

Epidemic that has spread across a large geographical area.

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Herd immunity

When individuals who are not immune to a pathogen are protected from exposure by the large amounts of immune individuals within the community

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38

Epidemiology

Study of patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in a defined population.

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39

Monoclonal antibodies

Antibodies artificially derived from a single B cell clone. Commonly used to provide immune protection for individuals who contract harmful diseases.

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40

Humoral immunity

The pathway by which antibodies are produced by B lymphocytes to target exogenous antigens.

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41

Cell-mediated immunity

Pathway that does not result in antigen production but instead targets endogenous antigens

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Active immunity

Production of antibodies by the body itself and the subsequent development of memory cells. Will result in long-term immunity.

<p>Production of antibodies by the body itself and the subsequent development of memory cells. Will result in long-term immunity.</p>
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43

Passive immunity

Results from the acquisition of antibodies from another source and hence memory cells are not developed.

<p>Results from the acquisition of antibodies from another source and hence memory cells are not developed.</p>
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44

Hypersensitivity disorders

An excessively disproportionate immune response to a substance that is not inherently harmful (allergen).

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45

Autoimmune disorders

Occurs when the immune system fails to recognize body cells as ‘self’ and begins targeting its own cells and tissues

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Immunodeficiency disorders

Is a state in which the immune system’s capacity to fight infection is compromised or absent entirely

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47

Macrophage

Large phagocyte. Finds antigens and eats them by secreting enzymes.

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