bio II exam 2

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  • Domain?

  • 6 monolithic groups? (CANBBG)

  • Originated from which single-cellular flagellate protist group?

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  • Domain?

  • 6 monolithic groups? (CANBBG)

  • Originated from which single-cellular flagellate protist group?

eukarya, chytrid, asco, neo, basidio, blast, glomer, opisthokonts

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what eukaryotic kingdom does this describe?

  • chitin cell walls (in insects too hehe)

  • filamentous or yeasts

  • composed of hyphae (which may be separated by hypha)


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hyphae cells can (or cant) be seperated via septa

  • _____- has 1 nucleus per septa

  • _____ - no septa but hundreds of nuclei in continuous cytoplasmic mass

septa hypha, coenocytic hypha

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____: single thread-like cell (but can house more than 1 nuclei separated by septa)

____: interconnected hyphae + main body of fungi

____:  reproductive body, “mushroom part”types

____: the stalk/stem

____: dome top part

____: thin tissue that hold spores

hypha, mycelium, fruiting body, stipe, cap, gills

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  • 3 ways fungi reproduce asexually

  • what is unique about the dikaryotic stage of reproduction?

conidiospores, fragmentation, budding, plasmogamy/haploid nuclei cell

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list order of fungal sexual reproduction

plasmogamy, karyogamy, meiosis, release

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are fungi autotrophs or heterotrophs?  are they more closely related to plants or animals?

heterotrophs, animals

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  • which phylum are club fungi in?

  • which phylum are sac fungi like yeast, mold, truffles in?

  • which phylum is Rhizopus (bread mold) in?

basidiomycota, ascomycota, zygomycota

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“Imperfect fungi” do not produce _____

(to our knowledge) and are in the phylum _____ and reproduce via this type of spore: ___

sexually, deutermycota, conidiospore

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  • lichen: symbiotic mutualistic relationship formed between what 2 organisms?

  • ____: symbiotic mutualistic relationship formed between plant roots and fungi

fungi and algae, mycorrhizae

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what 2 infections do parasitic fungi cause?

athletes foot and ringworm

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3 types of fungi nutrition

  1. ____: obtain nutrients from dead organisms

  2. ____: absorbs nutrients from live host’s tissue

  3. ____: symbiosis that is beneficial to both fungi and host

saprophytes, parasites, mutualistic

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  • In lichens:

a. ____ receive nutrients and energy

b. ____ receive protection and moisture

  • mycorrhizae have a special penetration mycelium called ____

  • __% of plants have mycorrhizae

fungi, algae, arbuscules, 90

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  • are green algae include in the plant kingdom?

  • are fungi included in the plant kingdom?

  • what do algae and plants have in common?

yes, no, photosynthetic, cellulose, starch, chlorophyll a and b

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plant adaptions for terrestrial life:

  • ___: coating that prevents zygote from drying

  • ___: waxy layer prevents water loss

  • ___: openings for gas exchange and prevent water loss

  • ___: root-like structure for anchor and absorption

  • ___: xylem and phloem for water/food transport

  • ___: life cycle alternated between haploid + diploid generations (haplodiplontic)

  • ___: root fungi mutualistic symbiosis

sphoropollenin, cuticle, stomata, rhizoids, vascularity, alternation of generations, mycorrhizae

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  • as plants became better adapted to land, which phase of the life cycle became the most dominant generation?

  • what part of the body plant is haploid?

  • what part of the body plant is diploid?

  • are spores haploid or diploid?

    a. produced by process of ___ in ____

  • what stage produces the gametes?a. produced by process of ___ in ____ (archegonia, antheridia)

sporophyte, gametophyte, sporophyte, haploid, meiosis, sporangium, gametophyte, mitosis, gametangia

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which plant kingdom phylum is:

  • non-vascular (ergo no specialized functions)

a. but untrue as root, stem, and leaves

  • photosynthetic

  • “amphibians of the plant kingdom.”

  • both asexual and sexual

  • require water for sexual reproduction (bc flagellated sperm)

  • dominant gametophyte stage

  • Liverworts, hornwarts, mosses

    *the worts came before moss*


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___: (in asexual reproduction) multicellular vegetative bodies/buds (lense shaped) that are in cups


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which plant is a true byrophyte?


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how are bryophytes important to ecology and economics?

(when bryophytes die, forms a thin soil layer)

  • ecology: helps prevent ____

  • economics: used as ___or burned as ___

erosion, potting soil, fuel

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which plant kingdom phylum is:

  • vascular but seedless (so still restricted to moist habitat)

  • dominant sporophyte stage

  • true roots

  • most are homosporous

  • club moss, ferns


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2 tracheophyte clades:

  1. ___:

  • club mosses (not true moss)

  • has true roots but lycophylls

  • sporophylls + strobilus

  • microphylls

  1. ___:

  • ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails

  • has fronds, sori, fiddleheads

  • Euphylls

  • macrophylls

what do both clades have in common?

lycophytes, ptedriophytes/monilophytes, seedless

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____small leaf-like structure w/ single vein (only in lycophytes!!)

____: large leaf-like leaves with many veins (all other plant phylas)

____: bisexual spores; produces 1 spore type that can become male or female

____: spores are already male or female

microphylls, macrophylls, homospores, heterospores

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In tracheophytes (as a whole), which vascular organ evolved first? second? third?

stem, roots, leaves

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  • sori contain the _____

  • process of ____ releases its spores

  • process of mitosis creates the ______ (heart shape)

  • this gametophyte contains both the antheridium and archegonium!

  • flagellated sperm uses water to ___ to ___ (female gametophyte)

  • fertilize!

  • zygote matures into embryo which then matures into ______

sporangium, meiosis, gametophyte, swim, archegonia, sporophyte

<p>sporangium, meiosis, gametophyte, swim, archegonia, sporophyte</p>
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Note: Ferns are seedless but are closest living relative to ____

seed plants

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club mosses have a cluster of microphyll-type leaves; these clusters form a cone.  what is this cone called?


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____: horizontal underground stem

____: tightly curled coils of young sporophyll leaf (emerges from rhizome)

____: sporangia clusters on back of sporophyll leaf

  • fern’s germinating spore develops into a small __-shaped gametophyte anchored to the soil by ___.

rhizome, fiddlehead, sori, heart, rhizoids

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  • ___: primary composition of cell wall synthesized by its _____

  • _____: contents that makeup inside of cell (cytoplasm, organelles, etc)

cellulose, protoplasts, protoplasts,

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_____: undifferentiated cells that divide indefinitely and give rise to differentiated cells/specialized area for cell growth

  • ____ meristems: located on tip of root/stems

a. primary growth (lengthens stem/roots)

b. produces leaves/flowers

c. protected by root cap and stored in primordia leaf

  • ____ meristems: located on sides of root/stems

a. secondary growth (widens)

  • 2 types

  1. ____: APICAL; adds secondary xylem + phloem

  2. ____: LATERAL; replaces epidermis into thicker periderm aka cork/bark (basically gives rise to cork/bark)

  • Xylem produced inward, phloem produces outward; bc meristems produce xylem cells first then phloem cells

meristems, apical, lateral, vascular cambium, cork cambium

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3 types of vascular tissue

  1. _____: protects plant; one cell thick layer

  • ____: waxy and prevents water loss

  • ____: open and close stomata for regulating gas exchange + transpiration (only found in epidermis cells containing chloroplasts)

  • ____: hair-like outgrowths to reduce water loss, reflect light, and defense

  1. _____:

  • ____: transports water + minerals like PPN (phosphate, potassium, nit)

a. vessels and tracheids

  • ____: transports water + organic material (multidirectional flow)

a. sieve plates and companion cells

  1. _____: functions as storage, photosynthesis, support, short-distance transport

  • its 3 cell types: ____

dermal tissue, cuticle, guard cells. trichomes, vascular tissue, xylem, phloem, ground tissue, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma

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3 type of ground tissue cells

  1. _____: (imagine like filler tissue) functions as storage, photosynthesis, secretion

  • thin walls

  • living protoplasts = so long life

  1. _____: (imagine celery) functions as support bc really bendy/flexible

  • thin flexible walls

  • living protoplasts = long life

  1. _____: (imagine wood) functions as structure and protection bc composed of lignin

  • hard thick walls

  • dead at maturity

parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma

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4 different zones of roots (top-→ bottom)

  1. Zone of _____: cells mature into different types of tissue

  • Zone of _____: cells increase in size (remember the vacuole expansion thing)

  • Zone of ____: composed of apical meristems, active division going on in here

  • _____: protects meristem and has gravity role

maturity, elongation, cell division, root cap

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Different root types:

  • ____: single large root with emerging smaller roots

  • ____: system of smaller roots of similar diameter

  • ____: any root that emerges out of stem/non-root place

a. ___ roots: thick roots that stick into ground and withstand wind (ex: corn)

b. ___ roots: roots extend into air and absorb water from air (ex: orchids)

c. ______: spongy outgrowth that sticks out of water in swamps/wet environments for oxygen intake

d. ___ roots: cork-screw root that spirals deeper into the ground each year (ex: lily flower bulbs)

e. ___ roots: peg-like roots of plants that lack chlorophyll; penetrates into plant stem (ex: dodder plant)

f. ___ roots: stores excess starch (ex: roots that grow from sweet potato, carrot, radish)

g. ___ roots: stores water, especially in arid regions (ex: pumpkins)

h. ___ roots: for extra structural support (ex: fig and tropical trees)

taproot, fibrous, adventitious, prop, aerial, pneumatophores, contractile, parasitic, food storage, water storage, buttress

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  • ___ point of attachment of leaf and stem

  • ___: area of stem between 2 nodes

  • ___: flat part of leaf

  • ___: leaf stalk

  • ___: develops into stems w/leaves or flowers

  • ___: extends stem

node, internode, blade, petiole, axillary bud, terminal bud

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Growth rings on tree stumps

  • light rings = _____

  • dark rings = _____

spring wood, summer wood

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  • ____: life cycle is 1 growing season (ex: marigolds and corn)

  • ____: life cycle is 2 growing seasons (ex: carrots and parsley)

  • ____: plants grow and produce year after year (ex: trees, shrubs, vines)

annuals, biannuals, perennials

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Modified stems

  • ____: swollen underground stem with fleshy leaves

  • ____: resembles bulbs^ but no fleshy leaves

  • ____: horizontal underground stem with adventitious roots

  • ____: horizontal stems with long internodes that grow along the surface of ground

  • ____: swollen tips of rhizomes ^ that contain carbs (ex: potatoes!)

  • ____: twine around support and aids in climbing (looks like stretched out telephone cord)

bulbs, corms, rhizome, runners/stolons, tubers, tendrils

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Leaf morphology

  • ____: single blade

  • ____: blade divided into leaflets

  • ____: has parallel veins

  • ____: has net-like veins

simple leaf, compound leaf, dicot, eudicot

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_____: ground tissue found in leaves containing chloroplasts for photosynthesis

  • has 2 types:

  1. _____: contains air spaces for taking in CO2/releasing O2 process of photosynthesis

  2. _____: column-shaped and located right under upper epidermis; where majority of chloroplast is (bc closer to sun duh)

mesophyll, spongy, palaside

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Recall that flowering is triggered by day and seasonal cues; photoperiods can be manipulated commercially

  • Poinsettias (Mexican red xmas flower) can be manipulated by light in greenhouses, so it grows in time for holidays)

  • Winter wheat cant flower without being chilled, then its seed will bloom in spring time

say yes


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Flower whorls

  • ____: (whorl 4) _____

  • ____: (whorl 3) _____

  • ____: (whorl 2) collective term for the ___ and its structures

  • ____: (whorl 1) collective term for the ____ and its structures

calyx, sepals, corolla, petals, androecium, stamen, gynoecium, carpals

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  • ____: flower has both stamens and carpals

  • ____: flower lack either stamens or carpals (hence unisex flowers)

perfect flower, imperfect flower

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  • ____ flowers → Bilateral symmetry

  • ____ flowers → Radial symmetry

later evolved, primitive

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Double fertilization process

  1. Pollen grain (contains 2 cells: generative cell and pollen tube cell) adheres to stigma

  2. Pollen tube penetrates into the style

  3. Pollen tube cell grows deeper into style, whereas generative cell divides into 2 sperm cells

  4. Pollen tube penetrates ovary in its hole called “micropyle”

  5. 1 sperm fertilize with egg to make zygote, whereas other sperm fertilizes with 2 polar nuclei/central cell to make endosperm

say yes


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types of pollination

____: flower’s pollen pollinates stigma of same flower (in monoecious flowers)

____: flower A’s pollen pollinates flower B’s stigma (in diecious flowers)

a. Insects, birds, humans (artificial hybridization), and wind can do this

know that there was co-evolution: angiosperms evolved during Cretaceous period, and pollinating insects also evolved during this time and helped the angiosperms evolve

self pollination, cross pollination

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Seedling parts

(remember – Seed = mature ovule*)

  • _____: embryonic leaf that forms the first leaf/leaves

a. Monocots and eudicots

  • _____: embryonic root that forms the first root

  • _____: forms the stem

  • _____: has shoot apical meristem and tiny foilage leaf called ‘plumule’

cotyledon, radicle, hypocotyl, epicotyl

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_____: fruit that splits open at maturity

  • Splits open to disperse seeds

  • Ex: legumes

_____: fruit doesn’t split open at maturity

  • Depends on decomposition or animal consumption to disperse seeds

  • Ex: nuts

dehiscent, indehiscent

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_____: a “pulling force” as water vaporizes from leaf stomata

_____: water molecules stick to each other

_____: water molecules stick to xylem walls

_____: water goes from high → low concentration through plasma membranes

transpiration, cohesion, adhesion, osmosis

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___: if plant cell placed into ___ → cell expands

___: if plant cell placed into ____ → cell shrinks

turgid, water, plasmolysis, sucrose

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_____ deal with drought via morphological adaptions like:

a.     Dormancy

b.     Less leaves – deciduous plants (plants that shed leaves)

c.      Cuticle

d.     Reducing # of stomata

e.     Having stomata in pits in the leaf

say yes


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Topsoil: a combo of what 3 things?

minerals, living organisms, humus

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  • Grow in __ soils which lack ___

  • Traps/eats insects to make up for their lack of ___

  • Has modified ___ for luring/trapping

  • Digests organisms via secreted ___

  • Ex: venus fly trap, pitcher plant, sundew

acidic, nitrogen, nitrogen, leaves, enzymes

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How are we dealing with food security issues?

  • _____: focuses on increasing plants’ mineral uptake/storage

  • GMO plants

a. Secrete ___ to solubilize ___

b. ____ plasma transport genes and transfer them into other plants

food fortification, citrate, phosphate, clone

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____: use to plants to concentrate and breakdown pollutants; 3 methods -

  1. ____: Containment is broken down

  2. ____: Contaminant is released via stomata

  3. ____: Contanimant is concentrated in plant shoots

  • All the pollutants are later harvested

phytoremediation, phytodegration, phytovolatilization, phytoaccumulation

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_____: divided into 4 eons > subdivided into eras > subdivided into periods

  • what are the 4 eons in order? (HAPP)

geological time, haeden, archean, protoerzoic, phanerzoic

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meteor hit earth ___ BYA

  • when this happened, oceans ____ and our mantle melted to ____ C degrees

  • Earth began to change when ____ levels shifted

  • ____ converted rock into soil

  • CO2 then formed carbonic acid → decreased CO2 → lowers earth temperature

4.6, vaporized, 2000, co2, weathering

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Crust created slabs of rock = _____ (under continents + oceans)

  • When it shifts, it creates ____

  • 2 supercontinents formed:

  1. ____ (all continents)

  2. ____ (all current southern hemisphere continents

a. ____ (formed from Gondwana)

plates, plate tectonics, rodinia, gondwana, pangea

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life first emerged in which eon?

  • ____: diversification of multicellular organisms

    • animals appeared and plants transition to land

archean, cambrian explosion,

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2 theories on how earth’s organic molecules formed

  1. _____ theory: meteors/comets that slammed into earth possibly carried organic materials, but we discovered that meteor carbon isotopes didnt match with earth’s

  2. ______ theory: although heavily debated, early atmosphere’s composition was thought to have CO2, nitrogen, water vapor, hydrogen

  • This chemical makeup is called reducing atmosphere bc carbon availability and its electrons = don't require tons of energy to form life

extraterrestrial, earth

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  • Did Haeden eon support life?

  • Earth’s first organisms emerged + lived in ____ temperatures

no, high

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  • what process produced atmosphere’s O2?

  • O2 atmosphere interacted with UV radiation = ___

a. this makes what possible?

oxygenic photosynthesis, ozone layer, life on land

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Mitochondria and chloroplasts entered proto-eukaryotes via ____ (in this exact order)


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evolution of endomembrane system caused by infolding of ______

  • _____ accounts for eukaryotic complexity

  1. Physical separation of translation/transcription adds levels of gene expression

  2. Golgi apparatus and ER - facilitate transport and localizes specific _____ inside cell

cell membrane, nuclear membrane, proteins

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4 plant phyla (in order)?

bryophytes, tracheophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms

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4 types of growth in plants

  1. ____: meristems continue to produce different tissues, similar to human STEM cells, can become anything!

  2. ____: animal and plant organ growth only goes to a certain size

  3. ____: lengthens root/shoot

  4. ____: widens root/shoot

indeterminate growth, determinate growth, primary growth, secondary growth

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<p>label accordingly</p><p>A:</p><p>B:</p><p>C:</p><p>D:</p><p>E:</p><p>F:</p>

label accordingly







pith, primary xylem, secondary xylem, vascular cambium, secondary phloem, primary phloem, cortex, cork cambium, periderm

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leaves grow from the ________

  • they don’t really have secondary growth but can*


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Leaf vs leaflet

  • ____: If its coming from an axil bud

  • ____: If its not coming from an axil bud


  • ____: all veins extend from midvein

  • ____: veins intersect and come from a central point of the petiole

Shape types

  • ____: no lobes

  • ____: still 1 leaf but lobed (gravity falls leaf)

  • ____: multiple leaflets

leaf, leaflet, pinnate, palmate, simple, lobed, compound

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Shoot apical meristems create 3 types of primary-tissue making meristems:

  1. _____: this meristem will make dermal tissue (→epidermis)

  2. _____: this meristem will make vascular tissue (→primary xylem and phloem)

  3. _____: this meristem will make ground tissue (→pith, cortex)

protoderm, procambium, ground meristem

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  • spores ____ to make gametophytes

  • male sporophyte’s antheridia will release its ____ to swim to ____ (female gametophyte)

  • fertilize!

  • zygote will mature into embryo which matures into _____

  • sporophyte will release its ____

germinate, flagellated sperm, archegonia, sporophyte, sporangia

<p>germinate, flagellated sperm, archegonia, sporophyte, sporangia</p>
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  • spores ____ to make gametophytes

  • mature thallus (male gametophyte) will release its ___ to swim to the ___ (female gametophyte)

  • fertilize!

  • zygote will mature into embryo which matures into _____

  • sporophyte will release its ___

germinate, flagellated sperm, sporophyte, sporangia

<p>germinate, flagellated sperm, sporophyte, sporangia</p>
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Order of terrestrial life adaptations?

(hint: put on covering, drink water and eat, get in the car, bloom in the shower)

cuticle, vascular tissue, seeds, flowers

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know that 90% of absorbed water from roots is lost to atmosphere (hence why guard cells are saviors man!!)

say yes


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  • integument develops into = ?

  • ovule develops into = ?

  • ovary develops into = ?

seed coat, seed, fruit

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During the Mesozoic era (rise/fall of dinosaurs), what type of plants were dominant?

_____: Slow-growing tropical gymnosperms


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____: spore that produces female gametophyte

____: spore that produces male gametophyte

megaspore, microspore

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  • Do gymnosperms have flowers and fruits?

  • Do they have cones?

  • Are conifers monoecious or diecious?

    a. commercial uses

nom, yes, monoecious, timber, paper, resin, anticancer

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What 3 adaptations enabled gymnosperms to thrive in cold, dry habitats?

seed, wind-blown pollen, wood

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Are cycads (old house front yard plant) monoecious or dioecious?

Commercial uses?

dioecious, landscaping/ornamental

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What is the only living species of Ginkgophytes?

Commercial uses?

gingko biloba, male plants used for landscaping

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Phylum Anthophyta - What are 4 critical innovations that helped them be successful?

seed, flowers, fruits, endosperm

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what does this describe?

  • 1 cotyledon

  • Long narrow leaves w/parallel veins

  • Scattered vascular bundles

  • Petal sets of 3

  • Fibrous roots


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what does this describe?

  • 2 cotyledons

  • Broad leaves w/network veins

  • Ring vascular bundles

  • Petal sets of 4-5

  • Taproots


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  • when mature, what structure forms fruit?

  • Types of fruit:

  1. _____ fruit: contains multiple ovaries (each containing a seed) but all comes from 1 flower

ex: strawberries

  1. _____ fruit: contains multiple ovaries (each containing a seed) but each comes from multiple/its own flower; they all fuse

ex: pineapple

  • _____: tomato

  • _____: peas in a pod

  • _____: has hard pit (peach/plum/cherries)

  • _____: wing forms as outer structure (maple, elms, ashes)

ovary, aggregate, multiple, berries, legumes, drupes, samaras

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Pollinators and certain circumstances for germination

  • Conifers dont open up until exposed to ___

  • Nectar-loving bats are attracted to ____-smelling ___/___flowers

  • ____ attracted to red/yellow flowers

  • ____ attracted to ____-smelling yellow/blue/purple

fire, sweet, pale, white, birds, bees, sweet

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Commercial uses for seed plants?

  • Food, Poacea (cereal wheat), rice, potatoes, roses, corn, cassava

  • Wood used for lumber, paper, resin, etc

  • Plant fibers (cotton) used for clothes

  • 25% of medicine from angiosperms

  • Illegal/legal drugs

say yes


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<p>label flower accordingly</p>

label flower accordingly

stigma, pollen, style, carpel, ovary, ovule, sepal, receptacle, stem, leaf, xylem, phloem, cambium, vascular bundle, cortex, petal, anther, filament, stamen

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Angiosperm egg development (IMPORTANT)

ovary contains megaspore mother cell → meiosis → 4 megaspores → 1 survivor megaspore → 3x mitosis → 7 cells formed bc 2 fused into a single central cell , there are 3 antipodals, 2 synergids that surround the 1 egg

say yes


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<p>Angiosperm pollen development</p><p>(IMPORTANT)</p><p>anther contains pollen sack holding multiple microspore mother cells → 3x meiosis → 4 microspore pollen grains→ each one undergoes mitosis → now each pollen grain contains a generative cell + tube cell</p><p></p><p>say yes</p>

Angiosperm pollen development


anther contains pollen sack holding multiple microspore mother cells → 3x meiosis → 4 microspore pollen grains→ each one undergoes mitosis → now each pollen grain contains a generative cell + tube cell

say yes


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where else is lignin present?

inside walls of xylem

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why would fungi switch to sexual reproduction?

undesirable environmental conditions,

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what is a land plant that does not have these traits:

  • apical meristems

  • alternation of generations

  • walled spores in sporangia

  • multicellular gametangia

  • multicellular dependent embryos


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which anthocerotophyta plant does this describe?

  • live with cyanobacteria

  • permanently opened stomata

  • “horn” shaped gametophyte

which bryophyte plant does this describe?

  • most abundant plants in arctic/ antarctic

  • greatest moss diversity (bc withstands long droughts but ironically uncommon in deserts)

  • prevents erosion, potting soils, burned as fuel

hornworts, mosses,

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know that this is the order

  • Apical meristem → procambium -→ vascular cambium/or cork cambium

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