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Literally means "love of wisdom"

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Literally means "love of wisdom"

Philosophy

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12 Philosophers in Chapter 1: From the Perspective of Philosophy

Socrates, Plato, St. Augustine of Hippo, Rene Descartes, John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Sigmund Freud, Gilbert Ryle, Patricia and Paul Churchland, Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

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Mentor of Plato

Socrates

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Be skilled at detecting misconceptions and revealing them by asking the right questions.

The Socratic Method

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Stone Mason with a sharp mind

Socrates

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People skilled in discussions and debates and the first teachers of the west

Sophist

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Plato's writing

The Dialogues

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This method involves the search for the correct/proper definition of a thing.

The socratic method

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He was named by the Delphi Oracle as the wisest of all men.

Socrates

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what is the aim of socratic method

make people think, seek, and ask, again and again.

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Established "The Academy"

Plato

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His name came from wide or broad and his physical built

Plato

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believed that Philosophy is more than analysis but rather a way of life.

Socrates and Plato

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refer to what is real. They are not objects that are encountered by the senses but can only be grasped intellectually.

Forms

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Characteristics of Forms.

eternal, permanent, indivisible.

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composed of changing "sensible" things which are lesser entities and therefore, imperfect and flawed.

The Realm of Shadows

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3 books of immanuel kant

Critique of pure reason, Critique of Practical reason and Critique of Judgement

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composed of eternal things which are permanent and perfect. It is the source of all reality and true knowledge.

The Realm of Forms

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made use of Socratic Method

Plato

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3 components of the soul according to Plato

The Reason, The Spirited, The Appetites

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the rational, is the motivation for goodness and truth.

The Reason

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3 Structures of the mind

ID, ego, superego

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is non-rational and is the will or drive towards action. This part of the soul is initially neutral but can be influenced/pulled in two directions.

The Spirited

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known as philosopher of the body

Maurice Merleau - Ponty

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are irrational and lean towards the desire for pleasures of the body.

The Appetites

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Plato's Theory of Love and Becoming

Allegory of the cave

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once the people get out of the cave and into the light, what they will see are the Forms which is what real knowledge is.

Only Forms are Real

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ID

Pleasue principle

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in knowing the truth, the person must become the truth.

Theory of Being

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How to get out of he Cave and into the World of Forms based on Plato's Philosophy?

Love

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Plato's 4 Big Ideas for Making Life More Fulfilled

1.Think More. 2.Let Your Lover Change You. 3.Decode the Message of Beauty. 4.Reform Society.

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Ego

Reality principle

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sees man as sinners who reject/go against a loving God's command.

Christianity

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The source of all reality and truth according to Hippo

God

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Difference between right or wrong

Superego

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Rejected Christianity and wanted to know about moral evil and why it existed in people.

St. Augustine of Hippo

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Christian philosophers during the medieval era

theologians

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Believed that man should rely on God's commands and his judgements of what constitutes good and evil.

St. Augustine of Hippo

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The Role of Love according to Hippo

''All things are worth of love but must be loved properly.''

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Father of modern Philosophy.

Rene Descartes

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a group of philosophers who considered truth as a universal concept and reason are superior to and independent of sensory experience.

Rationalist

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two powers of human mind

Intuition and Deduction

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Who Introduced the Cartesian method and invented analytic geometry.

Rene Descartes

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the ability to apprehend the direction of certain truths

Intuition

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the power to discover what is not known by progressing in an orderly way from what is already known. Truths are arrived at using a step-by-step process.

Deduction

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truths hat can be discovered, does not rely on some experiences because they are innate to human mind.

A priori

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Interested in politics and was a defender of the parliamentary system.

John Locke

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Locke's theory that ideas are not innate but rather the mind at birth is a blank slate.

Tabula Rasa

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objects that were experienced through the senses.

Sensation

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Mind looks at the objects that were experienced to discover relationships that may exist between them.

Reflection

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choosing or willing the good.

Morality

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are acts that produce the greatest possible good.

Mental acts

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Law of Opinion, Civil Law, and Divine Law

Three laws according to locke

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Where actions that are praiseworthy are called virtue and those that are not are called vice.

Law of Opinion

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where right actions are enforced by people with authority (ex. Courts, Police)

Civil Law

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set by God on the actions of man. The true law for human behavior. Man should always follow on this law

Divine Law

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-Lost his faith during the time that he was enrolled at the University of Edinburg. -Credited for giving empiricism its clear formulation. -Relied on scientific method at the beginning of his philosophy. -Discovered the limitations of the mind and his optimism turned into skepticism.

David Hume

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an attitude of doubting the truth of something.

Skepticism

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2 Types of Perception

Impression and Ideas

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are the immediate sensation of external reality. These are more vivid than the ideas it produces.

Impression

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are recollections of these impressions.

Ideas

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different terms of soul, according to Hume

"The self"

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He concluded that man does not really have an idea of the so-called self because ideas rely on sense impressions and people have no sense impression of a self.

Hume's View of Human Nature

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Lived all his life in town of Konisberg in East Prussia (presently Western Prussia) • Deeply spiritual • Rousseau made him realize and enabled him to formulate his philosophical ideas. • Stated that it was the philosophy of David Hume that awakened and motivated him to be the founder of German Idealism.

Immanuel Kant

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Combined Rationalism and Empiricism and defined knowledge as a result of human understanding applied to sense experience.

Kant's View of the Mind

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-Austrian neurologists -made use of methods like free association and dream analysis.

Sigmund Freud

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workings of the mind or one's mental life impacts strongly on the body resulting in either emotional stability or psychological dysfunctions.

Psychodynamic Theory

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life instincts, the energy of eros is called libido and includes urges necessary for individual and species survival like thirst, hunger, and sex.

Eros

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death instinct, man's behavior directed towards distribution in the form of aggression and violence.

Thanatos

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-An English philosopher whose ideas contradicted Cartesian Dualism. -Stigmatized the mind as the “Ghost in the Machine"

Gilbert Ryle

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2 types of Knowledge

Knowing-that and Knowing-how

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is one of the disciplines in the social sciences which aim to discover the ways by which the social surrounding/environment influences people’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior.

Sociology

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He wrote and published many articles and book reviews but did not publish any book. It was his students who put together his numerous writings and edited them for publication.

GEORGE HERBERT MEAD

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George Herbert Mead's main interests at Harvard University

Philosophy and Psychology.

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The approach Mead used to describe the power of the environment in shaping human behavior.

Social Behaviorism

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According to him, the Self is not there from birth, but is developed over time from social experience and activities. And self cannot be separated from society.

GEORGE HERBERT MEAD

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three activities developing the self, According to Mead

language, play and games.

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develops self by allowing individuals to respond to each other through symbols, gestures, words, and sounds.

Language

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develops self by allowing individuals to take on different roles, pretend and express expectation of others.

Play

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develops self by allowing individuals to understand and adhere to the rules of the activity.

Games

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3 STAGES OF SELF DEVELOPMENT

  1. The Preparatory Stage

  2. The Play Stage

  3. The Game Stage

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At this stage, children’s behavior is primarily based on imitation. It was observed that children imitate the behaviors of those around them.

The Preparatory Stage

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At this stage, skills at knowing and understanding the symbol of communication is important for this constitutes the basis for socialization.

The Play Stage

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At this stage the child begins to consider several tasks and various relationships simultaneously.

The Game Stage

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