Organelles

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cytosol

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Biology

26 Terms

1

cytosol

the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended. found in all cells located in cytoplasm

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2

cytoplasm

where cytosol is located found in all cells region between plasma membrane and nucelus

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3

nucleus

holds DNA, genetic instructions, and ribosomes. contains genes found in eukaryotic cells located in middle of the cell, surrounded by nuclear envelope and membrane

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4

cell/plasma membrane

selective barrier that allows oxygen, nutrient, and waste passage to service the cell found in all cells located at the very outside (inside cell wall for plants)

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5

cell wall

protects cell (prevents physical damage) and gives cell shape and structure. made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and proteins found in plants, fungi, protists, and prokaryotic cells. (eubacteria made of peptidoglycan, archae dont) located at the very outside

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6

mitochondrion

uses oxygen to turn glucose into ATP (cellular respiration) and generates chem energy for the cell found in eukaryotic cells located in cytosol

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7

chloroplast

converts light energy into chemical energy stored in sugar through photosynthesis found in plant cells located near cell wall in cytosol

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8

ribosome

creates proteins by reading mRNA and translating it into amino acid string found in all cells bound ribosomes located outside of ER or nuclear envelope, free ribosomes located in cytosol

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9

endoplasmic reticulum

smooth produces lipids, carbs (metabolism). rough produces ribosomes found in eukaryotic cells located on top of the nuclear envelope

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10

golgi apparatus/body

processes proteins from ER (cis side), transports them to a new location (trans side), modifies and packages proteins in vesicles found in eukaryotic cells located near the nucleus

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11

lysosome

cells digestive system that can also recycle old materials through hydrolysis. some come from golgi trans face. destroy worn out parts (autolysis) and programmed cell death (autopsis) can fuse w fuel vesicle and digest contents found in animal cells located in cytoplasm

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12

central vacuole

a resivoir/waste dump, storage for water and waste, maintains water pressure, and keeps the cell in shape found in eukaryotic cells (big in plants small in animals) located in center of cytosol

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13

centrosome

region where cells microtubules are initiated provides structure. centriole pairs help in cell division found in animal cell located near nuclear envelope

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14

nucleoid

area of DNA with no nuclear envelope found in prokarytic cell located in the center

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15

flagellum

motility structure composed of some microtubules (plasma membrane extension) that helps it move found in bacterial, animal, and protist cells located at the pole of the cell

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16

peroxisome

specialized metabolic functions, takes hydrogen peroxide and converts it to water and oxygen. area for oxidation reactions, lipid biosynthesis, and cholesterol synthesis found in eukaryotic cells loocated in the cytoplasm

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17

nucleolus

site of ribosome production. 1+ in a nucleus found in eykaryotic cells located in center of nucleus

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18

chromatin

coil and condense to form chromosomes, which make DNA replication, etc possible. visible in a dividing cell found in all cells located in nucleus

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19

plasmodesmata

cytoplasmic channels through cell walls to connect cytoplasm of adjactent cell, enables transport found in plant cells located in cell wall

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20

contractile vacuole

a vacuole that discharges fluid and water from cells found in freshwater protist cells located in center of cell

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21

cilia

hairlike fringe on a cell that helps it move through water found in animal and protist cells located on cell surface

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22

tight junctions

establish a barrier between outer cell layers that prevents leakege of fluid, regulates solute movement found in animal cells located at the border between apical and lateral membranes

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23

gap junctions

consist of membrane proteins. has pores to allow small molecules to pass through, enable cell comunication.found in animal cells located between plasma membranes

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24

desmosomes

ashesion zone to fasten cells together like rivets, made of sturdy keratin proteins (in muscles to prevent tears) found in animal cells located along lateral membrane

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25

cytoskeleton

protein microtubules, intermediate filaments & microfilaments to provide strength and shape to cell and anchor cell in place found in eukarytic cells located in cytoplasm

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26

ECM

made up of glycoproteins such as collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronectin

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