FNN 100 exam

studied byStudied by 2 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Oxidant

1 / 129

Tags and Description

Nutrition

1st

130 Terms

1

Oxidant

A compound which oxidizes other compounds

New cards
2

Pro-Oxidant

A compound which promotes oxidization

New cards
3

Anti-Oxidant

A compound which inhibits/reverses oxidization

New cards
4

Radical

Any atom that contains one or more orbital electrons with unpaired spin states

New cards
5

In-Vivo

"Within the living"-Biological studies that are done testing whole living organisms (could be animals, plants or humans)

New cards
6

In-Vitro

"Within the glass"-Studies on microorganisms, cells or biological molecules usually use test tubes, Petri dishes etc.

New cards
7

In-Vitro antioxidants (also dietary antioxidants)

Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium, carotenoids

New cards
8

Function of Radical species

Everything we do creates free radicals (eat, exercise, breath)

  • They potentially play beneficial roles in reactions to viruses and bacteria (minimal) -Generally, they are harmful and we need to counteract them by eating fruits and vegetables.

  • Attack polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipoproteins and cell membranes (interfering with cellular transport systems) -Damage cell proteins

  • Cause DNA mutations

New cards
9

Vitamin C

Needs Vitamin D for absorption Water soluable Body maintains 22mg/kG of body weight (body pool is 1500mg)

New cards
10

RDA/DRI for Vitamin C

Males = 90 mg Females = 75 mg Smokers + 35mg UL= 2000 mg

New cards
11

Functions of Vitamin C

Preventing scurvy (<300 body pool) Collagen Production Enzyme cofactor for Fe and Cu Regenerates other antioxidants

New cards
12

Food sources of Vitamin C

Citrus fruits and berries Tomatoes Brussel Sprouts and spinach Broccoli and cauliflower Potatoes

New cards
13

Carotenoids Functions

Best biomarker for fruit and veg intake Pro vitamin-A activity

New cards
14

Food sources of Carotenoids

Colourful fruits/veggies Papaya, melon, peaches Yam, squash, carrots peppers

New cards
15

Functions of Vitamin E

Protects cell membrane Antioxidants for LD lipoprotein and lung cells

New cards
16

Vitamin E excretion

Chylomicrons deliver Vitamin E to the liver -> forming part of Very low density Lipoprotein (cholesterol) and travels to tissues

New cards
17

Deficiency of Vitamin E

Primary deficiency = rare (due to malabsorption, genetic mutations) hemolytic anemia (rbc degrade)

New cards
18

Food sources of Vitamin E

In foods that contain fat vegetable oils meat, fish, poultry

New cards
19

DRIs for Vitamin E

RDA: Men/women 19-50 yrs = 15 mg/day UL= 1000mg

New cards
20

Functions of Selenium

14 selenoprotein production Vitamin C redox status Regulates thyroid hormone action

New cards
21

Food sources of Selenium

Muscle meats and organs

New cards
22

Deficiency of Selenium

Very rare, caused from areas where soil is low in selenium

New cards
23

Selenelosis

Selenium Toxicity, causes brittle hair and nails, garlic breath

New cards
24

DRIs for Selenium

RDA Males/females 19-50 yrs = 55 mcg/day UL= 400mcg

New cards
25

Excess Vitamin C supplementation

Lead to hampered endurance capacity

New cards
26

Excess Vitamin E supplementation

Immunity study → NO difference in race times, Supplementation PROMOTED lipid inflammation.

New cards
27

Excess Vitamin C and E supplementation

Combined study PLACEBO group → MORE lean mass

New cards
28

Function of Water

Delivers nutrients and removes waste Lubricant and cushion Chemical rxn medium Blood volume component Removes heat from body

New cards
29

Body Water

~50-60% of the human body is water 3 g of water per 1 g glycogen

New cards
30

Water and cells

65% is intracellular (within cells) 35% is extraacellular (outside cells)

New cards
31

DRIs for Water

2.7 - 3.7 L

New cards
32

Caveats of water DRIs

20% of this requirement can come from food All fluids count towards this requirement Assumes normal activity

New cards
33

Alcohol

Class 1 carcinogen Associated with cancers

New cards
34

Coffee and Water (study)

Studies show coffee consumption provided similar hydrating qualities to water

New cards
35

Hyperthermia

Going above normal temperature (~37*C)

New cards
36

Leading cause of death in athletes

Exertional heat stroke

New cards
37

Electrolytes

Salts that dissolve in water in form of charged ions → can conduct electrical impulses

New cards
38

DRIs for Sodium (Na)

AIs = 1200-1300mg/day UL = 2300 mg/day

New cards
39

Hypernatremia

Increased plasma sodium concentration caused by water loss, gain in sodium (dietary or renal) or both (osmosis)

New cards
40

Hyponatremia

A serum, plasma or blood sodium concentration below the normal reference range of the laboratory performing the test (<135 mmol)

New cards
41

Food sources of Potassium

Best source: Sweet potato

New cards
42

Hypokalemia

Potassium Deficiency

New cards
43

Hyperkalemia

Very rarely dietary, most often seen with medical conditions (heart disease), prescription drugs, severe dehydration, renal disease, immunosuppressants, supplemental overdose

New cards
44

Conduction

Heat transfered directly from one object to another

New cards
45

Convection

Heat loss by passage of air/fluid over skin

New cards
46

Radiation

Objects that are hotter than surroundings lose heat to surroundings

New cards
47

Evaporation

Sweating (1L per hour)

New cards
48

Dehydration

2% loss of body weight in a day Dark urine high plasma osmolality

New cards
49

What is the best exercise?

Any exercise you are inclined to do and can stick to

New cards
50

Recommendation for Exercise

150 minutes per week (minimum), strength training 2x a week

New cards
51

Basic Principles of Exercise training (5)

Specificity, progressive overload, individuality, periodization, reversibility

New cards
52

Progressive Overload

Slowly increasing the stress placed on a muscle or system in order to produce greater adaptation/improvement

New cards
53

Specificity

The improvements gained from exercise training will be highly specific to the type of exercise undertaken.

New cards
54

Individuality

Training should be modified to account for every individual's unique capacity for and response to training.

New cards
55

Periodization

Varying some aspect of training (ie. frequency, intensity, type) over specific periods of time.

New cards
56

Reversibility

The benefits obtained through training are rapidly lost once a person stops exercising

New cards
57

Results of untrained people vs trained people

Untrained people will have greater results than one who is consistently exercising.

New cards
58

Exercise and mortality rate

Exercising lowers mortality rate

New cards
59

Functions of Iron

Transports O2 in blood Energy metabolism in citric acid cycle and ETC Involved in immune system DNA synthesis

New cards
60

DRIs of Iron

8-18 mg (higher for females)

New cards
61

Food sources of Iron

Organ meats, blood, muscle meat, soy (natto)

New cards
62

Two types of Iron

"Heme" iron (animal flesh) "Non-heme" iron (plants)

New cards
63

Iron Deficiency (factors which contribute)

Poor diet, genetics, periods, exercise induced hemolysis and hematuria

New cards
64

Anemia

End stage of iron deficiency

New cards
65

Good Hemoglobin Levels

115 g/L + (females) 135g/L + (males)

New cards
66

Two forms of Vitamin A (found via diet)

Preformed Vitamin A (retinol) Provitamin A carotenoids

New cards
67

Functions of Vitamin A

Vision Growth and reproduction Gene expression Immune function

New cards
68

Food sources of Vitamin A

Preformed Vitamin A: Animal products (liver, milk and eggs) and other fortified foods Carotenoids: plant foods

New cards
69

DRIs for Vitamin A

700-900 ug/day UL= 2000 ug/day

New cards
70

Functions of Vitamin K

Blood clotting Coenzyme for protein synethsis that regulates plasma Ca and bone metabolism

New cards
71

Food sources of Vitamin K

Intestinal microflora produce vitamin K (not enough to meet need) Liver, leafy greens, milk, cabbage

New cards
72

DRIs for Vitamin K

AI: 90-120mcg/day

New cards
73

Functions of Folate

Coenzyme in THF Homocysteine breakdown Blood volume and growth during pregnancy

New cards
74

Function of Calcium

Bone Health Main component of bones

New cards
75

DRIs for Calcium

RDA=1000mg/day UL= 2300 mg/day

New cards
76

Function of Riboflavin

FAD and FMN metabolism Prevents abriflavinosis and cheilosis

New cards
77

Food sources of RIboflavin

bread, fortified cereal organ meats, eggs broccoli

New cards
78

Fallacies of Logic

naturalistic fallacy and false cause

New cards
79

EAR

Estimated Average Requirement: Set for 50% of the population

New cards
80

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance: Set for 97.5% of the population

New cards
81

AI

Adequate Intake

New cards
82

UL

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

New cards
83

AMDR

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

New cards
84

DRIs of Magnesium

RDA: 300-400 mg/day

New cards
85

DRIs for Protein

RDA is 0.80 g per kg per day or 56 g/day for men

New cards
86

RDA is 0.80 g per kg per day or 46 g/day for women

New cards
87

DRIs for Niacin

RDA males (19+): 16 mg/day

New cards
88

RDA females (19+): 14 mg/day

New cards
89

DRIs for Vitamin D

600 IUs

New cards
90

UL: 4,000 IUs

New cards
91

DRIs for Folate

400 mcg/day

New cards
92

RDA pregnancy: 600 mcg/day

New cards
93

UL (19+): 1,000 mcg/day

New cards
94

Kwashiorkor Disease

Protein Deficiency

New cards
95

Affects children 2-5

New cards
96

Resulting from recent severe food restriction, that is characterized by a swollen belly

New cards
97

Marasmus

Protein Deficiency

New cards
98

Affects infants 6-18 months old

New cards
99

Due to chronic lack of energy intake where protein is used for energy

New cards
100

Related to impaired brain development

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 70 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard171 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard401 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard107 terms
studied byStudied by 74 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 86 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)