Ap Unit 6 Terms

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Adolescent Fertility Rate

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69 Terms

1

Adolescent Fertility Rate

Number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19

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2

Cooperative Store

A member-owned, member-governed business that operates for the benefit of its members according to common principles agreed upon by the international cooperative community

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3

Developed Country

A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development

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4

Developing Country

A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of development

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5

Development

A process of improvement in the conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology

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6

Fair Trade

An alternative to international trade that provides greater equality to workers, small businesses, and consumers, focusing primarily on products exported from developing countries to developed countries

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7

Female Labour Force Participation Rate

The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home

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8

Foreign Direct Investment

Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country

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9

Gender-Related Development Index

An indicator used by the UN to measure the gender gap in the level of achievement in terms of income, education of life expectancy

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10

Gender Inequality Index

An indicator constructed by the UN to measure the extent of each country’s gender equality in terms of reproductive health, empowerment, and the labor market

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11

Gross Domestic Product

The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, not accounting for the money that leaves and enters the country

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12

Gross National Income

The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that enters and leaves the country

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13

Human Development Index

An indicator constructed by the UN to measure the level of development of a country through a combination of income, education, and life expectancy

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14

Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index

A modification of the HDI to account for inequality

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15

Literacy Rate

The percentage of a country’s people who can read and write

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16

Maternal Mortality Rate

The annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes)

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17

Microfinance

Provision of small loans and financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries

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18

Millennium Development Goals

Eight goals adopted by the UN in 2002 to reduce disparities between developed and developing countries by 2015

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19

Primary Sector

The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of minerals from Earth, generally through agriculture

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20

Productivity

The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labour needed to make it

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21

Pupil-Teacher Ratio

The number of enrolled students divided by the number of teachers

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22

Purchasing Power Parity

The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country

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23

Secondary Sector

The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming,and assembling raw materials

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24

Structural Adjustment Program

Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions international trade

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25

Sustainable Development Goals

Seventeen goals adopted by the UN in 2015 to reduce disparities between developed and developing countries by 2030

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26

Tertiary Sector

The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment

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27

Value Added

The gross value of a product minus the costs of raw materials and energy

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28

Acid Deposition

The accumulation of acid on the Earth’s surface

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29

Acid Precipitation

Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog

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30

Active Solar Energy

Solar radiation captured with photovoltaic cells that convert light energy to electrical energy

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31

Air Pollution

Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air

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32

Animate Power

Power supplied by animals or people

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33

Biomass Fuel

Fuel derived from wood, plant material, or animal waste

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34

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

The amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution

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35

Break-of-Bulk Point

A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another

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36

Bulk-Gaining Industry

An industry in which the final product weighs more than or comprises a greater volume than the inputs

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37

Bulk-Reducing Industry

An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs

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38

Chlorofluorocarbon

A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams in fire extinguishers

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39

Consumptive Water Usage

The use of water that evaporates rather than being returned to nature as a liquid

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40

Cottage Industry

Manufacturing based in homes rather than factories, most common prior to the industrial revolution

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41

Fission

The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy

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42

Fossil Fuel

An energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago

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43

Fusion

Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium

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44

Geothermal Energy

Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks

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45

Greenhouse Effect

The anticipated increase in Earth’s temperature caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface

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46

Just-In-Time Delivery

Shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed

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47

Labour-Intensive Industry

An industry for which labour costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses

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48

Maquiladora

A factory built by a US company in Mexico near the US border, to take advantage of the much lower labour costs in Mexico

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49

New International Division of Labour

Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from developed to less developed countries

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50

Non Consumptive Water Usage

The use of water that is returned to nature as liquid

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51

Nonpoint Source Pollution

Pollution that comes from a large, diffuse area

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52

Nonrenewable Energy

A source of energy that has a finite supply capable of being exhausted

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53

Outsourcing

A decision by a corporation to turn over much responsibility for production to independent suppliers

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54

Ozone

A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation and is found in the stratosphere, a zone 15 to 20 kilometers (9-30 miles) above Earth’s surface

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55

Passive Solar Energy Systems

Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices

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56

Photochemical Smog

An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions

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57

Point Source Pollution

Pollution that enters a body of water from a specific source

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58

Pollution

Concentration of waste added to air, water, or land at a greater level than occurs in average air, water, and land

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59

Post-Fordist Production

Adoption by companies of flexible work roles, such as the allocation of of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks

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60

Potential Reserve

The amount of a resource of deposits not yet identified but thought to exist

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61

Proven Preserve

The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits

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62

Recycling

The separation, collection, processing, marketing and reuse of unwanted material

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63

Remanufacturing

The rebuilding of a product to specifications of the original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts

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64

Renewable Energy

A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people

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65

Right-To-Work Law

A US law that prevents a union and a company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join the union as a condition of employment

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66

Sanitary Landfill

A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage every day to reduce emissions of odors and gasses from the decaying trash, minimize fires, and to discourage vermin

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67

Site Factors

Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside a plant, such as land, labor, and capital

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68

Situation Factors

Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory

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69

Vertical Integration

An approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process

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