A huge desert stretching across most of North Africa
climatic regimes of mild wet winters and warm and dry summers
A type of desert where it is hot and dry most of the year, have few plants and a hard. windblown surface strewn with rocks and some sand.
climate that is wet and warm, but not as constantly hot as the tropics
Belt south of the Sahara where it transitions into savanna across central Africa. It means literally 'coastland' in Arabic.
A tropical forest, usually of tall, densely growing, broad-leaved evergreen trees in an area of high annual rainfall.
Climate zone near the ocean/sea.
low climate zones
wet equatorial, monsoon and trade-wind coastal , wet-dry tropical, and dry tropical.
middle climate zones
Moderates and extremes, 30°-60° N of Equator and S of Equator, Continental climates, "Seasonal" climates, Most heavily populated areas,Major agricultural production
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Great Rift Valley
area in Africa where parts of the plateau's surface dropped and early human fossils are found
The economic system of north Africa and across the Sahara Desert; controlled by African kingdoms like Mali and Songhai.
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. An integral part of the Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules for colonization of Africa
A serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system. acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. gold and salt trade.
a West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591
Part of africas trade network, middleman between gold mines to city-states on the coast
Nile River Civilization
Egypt and Sudan; fertile land and ruled by pharaohs or god-kings under a polytheistic belief. Old civilizations.
African Indpendence movements
(1900's AD) These movements started once African countries started rebelling against their mother country. One by one, the countries gained their independence.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Union of South Africa
In 1910, the British united Cape Colony, Natal, the Transvaal, and the OFS to form the Union of South Africa, a self-governing dominion. (Simultaneously in West Africa, Britain expanded trading stations into full-scale colonies).
A dispersion of people from their homeland- spreading the culture.
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East. Very rich and led to inflation in egypt.
President of South Africa in 1989. Began to dismantle white-only rule and the official structures of the Apartheid. Shared Nobel Peace Prize with Nelson Mandela.
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
Arabic traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records
The "greatest" leader of the Songhai Kingdom. Developed an efficient government bureaucracy to run agriculture, the military, and the treasury (collect taxes).
Leader of Zulu people, Around 1816 used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state. The Zulu land became part of British-controlled land in 1887.
African ruler in the Eastern Congo, who also built his empire on trading slaves and ivory
First great ruler of Songhai, who established the empire
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought greater equality.
A major African language family. Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. Famous for migrations throughout central and southern Africa.
A Bantu language with arabic words, spoken along the east african coast