History Quiz 1

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Abram (Abraham) enters Canaan (DATE)

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Abram (Abraham) enters Canaan (DATE)

2090 BC

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The Exodus from Egypt (DATE)

1446 BC

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3
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Chaldean/Babylonian Empire (DATE)

612-539 BC

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4
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Judah's 70-year captivity in Babylon (DATE)

605-536 BC

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5
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Persian Empire (began by Cyrus the Great, ended by Alexander) (DATE)

550-331 BC

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6
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Howard Carter

discovered King Tut's tomb

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7
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Zoroastrianism

would become the de-facto state religion of Persia (Iran)

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8
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Regnal dating

based off the reign of kings

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9
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Mesopotamia

meaning "the land between rivers", located in present day Iraq and Syria. Called the "cradle of civilization"

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Fertile Crescent

includes Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Palestine

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Far East

designate India and China

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Civilization definition

a culture that has attained a high degree of complexity, characterized by urban life

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Early Mesopotamian Life

Home -- swampy flood plain, subject to irregular flooding

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14
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Tigris/Euphrates area...

open to invasion and saw constant warfare

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City-state

urban region and agricultural land under city control (Ur a leader)

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Cuneiform

a writing system consisting of wedge marks on clay

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Slavery

widespread, 40-50% of the population

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Religion:

polytheism

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Sargon I (Sargon the Great)

built the world's first substantial empire; stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean

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Babylon

A city prominent under Hammurabi

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Hammurabi

best known for his law code

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Egypt

"the gift of the Nile"; one of the longest-lasting civilizations in history; devised the first solar calendar

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The Nile...

rose and fell with precision, "black silt" left behind

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Pharaoh

believed to be both a man and a god

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Pyramid

a burial chamber for the pharaohs

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Who was mummified?

at first it was pharaohs, then anyone that could afford it, animals (cats), etc.

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Rosetta Stone

contains Egyptian hieroglyphics, Egyptian demotic, and Greek

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Old Kingdom Period (Egypt)

age of pyramids reaches zenith at Giza; enormous expenditure on pyramids led to its decline

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the Hyskos

overthrown in a national uprising

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Hatshepsut

1st female pharaoh

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Amenhotep II and Akhenaton

pharaohs

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King Tutenkhamen

"King Tut"; his tomb escaped looting and was found largely intact

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The United Kingdom of Israel's First Three Kings

Saul, David, Solomon

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(After Division) Israel

10 Northern tribes identified with Samaria, conquered by the Assyrians

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(After Division) Judah

2 Southern tribes identified with Jerusalem, conquered by the Babylonians

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Celt

West European peoples during the Iron Age

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Hittites

from Asia Minor; alleged to be an example of "error" in the Bible, but archaeology confirmed Biblical references. Had iron weapons and used formal treaties. Historians practiced revisionism

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Phoenicians (Canaanites)

The Mediterranean's greatest traders, navigators, shipbuilders, and colonizers; their most popular export: cloth dyed purple

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Aramaeans

dominated camel caravan trade. Their language (Aramaic) became the international language of the Near East

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Assyrian

militaristic & cruel people, ruled by terror, deported the "10 lost tribes" of Israel

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Chaldeans (Babylonians)

joined with the Medes to overthrow the Assyrians

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Persia

located in modern Iran -- their empire will be massive. had a "royal highway"

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Cyrus the Great

one of the "greatest conquerors in the history of the ancient Near East"

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Epic of Gilgamesh

written before Genesis

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2000-1200 BC

Aegean Age: Minoans, Mycenaeans, Dorians

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1150-750 BC

Greek "Dark Ages"

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750-323 BC

Hellenic Age: city-states emerge - encompasses the Greek "Golden Age"

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431-434 BC

The Peloponnesian War(s)

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323-27 BC

The Hellenistic Age: "Greek-like" - after Alexander to Augustus

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demagoguery

selfish, unprincipled appeals to popular passions and prejudices

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Parthenon

located in Athens

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Aristocracy

ruled by the "best"

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Monarchy

ruled by a monarch, a king or queen, may involve a royal family

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Oligarchy

ruled by a few

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Republic

ruled by elected leaders

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Why are the Greeks important?

"Ideas"

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Greek area:

the same as England or Alabama

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greeks influenced by:

Mountains and Sea (few natural resources, led to colonization)

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Polis

a major town with its surrounding territory

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Minoan civilization

located on the island of Crete; commercialized agriculture appears, prosperous trade

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Mycenaean civilization

located at Mycenae (Greek mainland)

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The Greek Dark Ages

began after the destruction caused by a Dorian invasion

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Persian Wars

Greeks defeated an invading Persian army at Marathon

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Athens

a commercial and sea-faring community; practiced direct democracy (participation of all citizens: men with two Athenian parents). Their freedom had limits: dangerous politicians could be banished/exiled for 10 years: ostracism

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Sparta

similar to modern totalitarian states. isolated and agricultural. slaves (helots) outnumbered citizens 10-1. slaves were in agriculture, craft, and domestic settings, so Spartans were free for "other" pursuits

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Peloponnesian War

fought over who would control Greece. Athens vs Sparta (Sparta prevails)

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Olympic Games

called for truces during the games. men only

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Phillip II

King of Macedonia

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Alexander the Great

Son of Phillip II, spread greek culture eastward during Hellenistic age/period

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Hellenistic Age

spans c. 300 years from the death of Alexander until Ptolemaic Greece was defeated by Augustus at Actium

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Upon Alexander's death...

empire was divided and given to four officers/generals

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

Egypt

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Seleucid Kingdom

Persian Empire

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Antigonid Kingdom

Macedonia

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Greek beliefs/traditions

moves from mythology to philosophy

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Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

led a countermovement grounded upon the notion that truth is real and discoverable

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Epicureans

the finest pleasures are intellectual

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stoics

the universe is controlled by something

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Cleisthenes

founder of Athenian democracy

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Pericles

Statesman who dominated Athens during the "Golden Age"

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Protagoras

famous Sophist; "man is the measure of all things"

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Socrates

taught by asking probing and penetrating questions. counseled "know yourself" and "the unexamined life is not worth living". sentenced to death by drinking hemlock

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Plato

found the Academy in Athens to train the ruling class. "theory of reforms"

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Aristotle

pupil of Plato, tutor to Alexander the Great. associated with elements of both deductive and inductive reading. laid down rules for syllogisms (a deductive scheme)

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