Midterm review

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dehydration

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midterm review

54 Terms

1

dehydration

removes water to bring things together

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2

hydrolysis

releases energy, adds water to break things apart

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3

structure of glucose

6-ring carbon (C6H12O6) monosaccharide

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4

function of glucose

quick energy, used in Krebs Cycle/reactions with or without oxygen

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5

structures when creating proteins

primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary

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6

primary structure

linear chain of amino acids

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7

secondary structure

chain folds, becomes 2D

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8

tertiary structure

continues to fold, 3D arrangement of polypeptide chains

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9

quarternary structure

sub-units join together

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10

what makes each amino acid different?

r-groups

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11

denaturing

the breaking down of an enzyme; caused by change in temp./PH

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12

what makes up a nucleotide?

amino acids

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13

function of each organelle

following cards have the organelles in question ;)

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14

Golgi apparatus

central intracellular membrane-bound organelle with key functions in trafficking, processing, and sorting of newly synthesized membrane and secretory proteins and lipids. Golgi membranes form a unique stacked structure.

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15

rough ER

Covered in Ribosomes, produces proteins for cell.

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16

smooth ER

tube-like structure near cell periphery, stores enzymes.

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17

vacuoles

membrane bound, help remove waste in animals, maintain water balance in plants.

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18

nucleus

largest organelle,  It houses the genome, and through gene expression, it co-ordinates the activities of the cell.

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19

cytoplasm

gel-like fluid inside the cell, medium for chemical reactions, provides platform for other organelles to operate.

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20

ribosomes

intercellular, made of RNA and protein, site of protein synthesis

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21

lysosomes

membrane bound, contains digestive enzymes

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22

membrane

separates the interior of the cell from its environment. Semi permeable lipid bilayer, regulates materials entering/leaving cell

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23

vesicles

consists of fluid enclosed by lipid bilayer. Transport materials within cytoplasm

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24

mitochondria

membrane bound, produces ATP

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25

how do we know that eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells?

the endosymbiotic theory- multiple eukaryotic cells join into one and have a symbiotic relationship

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26

catabolism

breaks molecules down into smaller units, can be oxidized or used in anabolic reactions

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27

anabolism

constructs molecules from smaller units, requires energy (endergonic), building up

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28

metabolism

life-sustaining chemical reactions, converts food to energy

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29

lock & key method

Enzyme must match active site in order to bond and form a reaction.

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30

what are inhibitors

inhibitors bind to enzymes to prevent enzyme reactions (can be competitive, noncompetitive, or uncompetitive)

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31

why does cell size matter?

Smaller size allows for more efficient transport across the cell.

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32

osmosis

balances levels of water and intracellular fluids to stabilize internal environment.

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33

diffusion

net movement from high concentration to low concentration

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34

facilitated diffusion

passive movement of molecules along the concentration gradient. Selective membrane chooses what can pass through

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35

active transport

movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy

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36

carrier proteins

Transport proteins along protein channel, creates conformational changes while moving across the membrane.

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37

exocytosis

contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.

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38

endocytosis

taking in matter to form vacuole.

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39

protein channel

special arrangement of amino acids which embeds in the cell membrane, providing a hydrophilic passageway for water and small, polar ions

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40

protein pump

protein that is capable of pumping out compounds that could pose a threat to the cell

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41

cellular respiration

chemical reactions turning glucose to ATP

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42

photosynthesis

Converts light energy into food

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43

isotonic

same concentration of solutes as another solution across a semipermeable membrane.

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44

hypotonic

having a lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid. (hypo- low)

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45

hypertonic

having a higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid. (hyper- higher)

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46

steps of signal transduction:

reception, transduction, response

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47

reception

a cell detects a signal in the environment

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48

transduction

activating a series of proteins inside the cell from the cell membrane

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49

response

change in behavior that occurs in the cell as a result of the signal (cells can choose whether or not to respond)

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50

CAM plant

collect sunlight during the day and fix CO2 molecules (photosynthesize) at night

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51

C3 plant

3 carbon compound

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52

C4 plant

4 carbon compound, splits into a 3-carbon compound for the Calvin cycle

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53

steps of cellular respiration

  1. Glycolysis

  2. Citric acid/Krebs cycle

  3. ETC

  4. oxidative phosphorylation

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54

steps of photosynthesis

  1. absorption of light

  2. Transfer of electrons

  3. ATP

  4. Carbon fixation

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