Unit 3 Lecture Objectives

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anatomy

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Biology

BIO112

152 Terms

1

anatomy

study of structure of an organism

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physiology

study of the functions of an organism

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tissue

specialized group of cells

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organ

functional units made up of tissues

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organ system

groups of organs

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6

what does it mean by “form follows function?”

the function is how an organ looks like

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7

characteristic body shapes of aquatic animals

torpedo shape allows them to move through water more efficiently

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8

striated vs smooth muscle tissue

striated: voluntary, skeletal muscle

smooth: involuntary, intestinal muscle

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9

voluntary vs involuntary muscle tissue

voluntary: under conscious control

involuntary: not under conscious control

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10

two cell types of nervous tissue

neurons and glia

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11

function of two cell types of nervous tissue

electrical signals received by nerves, nerve cords, brain

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12

what are the things that animals exchange with the environment

carbon dioxide, nutrients, food

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13

two major issues associated with environmental exchange

surface area and volume do not change proportionally, environmental change requires an aqueous environment

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14

adaptations animals have to help solve problems

maximizing surface area, circulatory system, branched tubes in lungs

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15

homeostasis

maintenance of a steady internal state

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16

heat

form of energy that is transferred between objects

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17

vasodilation

expansion of the diameter of superficial blood vessels increasing blood flow and heat to skin

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18

vasoconstriction

constriction of the diameter of superficial blood vessels decreasing blood flow and heat to skin

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19

counter current exchange

exchange between fluids moving in opposite directions

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20

thermogenesis

varying heat production to match changing rates of heat loss

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21

hibernation

long term torpor that evolved as an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity

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estivation

summer torpor to avoid heat or drought

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osmosis

diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from high to low concentration of water

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osmolarity

measure of solute concentration

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hypertonic

high amount of solute, low amount of water

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hypotonic

low amount of solute, high amount of water

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isotonic

equal parts of solute and water

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what does it mean to regulate and conform to cope with fluctuations in the environment

solutes are gained by eating and drinking, gets lost by urine and feces. exchanged by respiratory system

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29

endotherms

body temp regulated by metabolism

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30

ectotherms

body temp regulated by temperature of surrounding environment

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advantages of endotherms

  • can perform vigorous activities for longer times

  • active in envrionments that are non-optimal temperatures

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disadvantages of endotherms

energetically expensive

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33

advantages of ectotherms

  • require less energy

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34

disadvantages of ectotherms

  • cannot function in non-optimal temperatures

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35

five categories of thermoregulatory adaptations

  • insulation

  • regulation of blood flow

  • evaporation

  • metabolism & body size

  • behavior

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36

justify the need for osomregualtion

regulates concentration of body fluids

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37

how can you predict the direction of water movement across a semi permeable membrane

the amount of solutes

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38

identify the circumstances where aquatic animals would tend to lose water

in a saltwater environment

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39

identify the circumstances where aquatic animals would tend to gain water

in a freshwater environment

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40

how does osmoregulators maintain water and salt balance in marine environments

large volume of urine-- less concentrated than body fluids

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how does osmoregulators maintain water and salt balance in freshwater environments

small amount of urine-- slightly less concentrated than body fluids

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how does osmoregulators maintain water and salt balance in terrestrial environments

moderate volume of urine-- more concentrated than body fluids

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43

cardiovascular system

heart and blood

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44

heart

cardio

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atrium

first receiver of blood in heart

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ventricle

pumps to lungs or body

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blood vessel

how blood moves through body

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plasma

cell and cell fragments suspended in this liquid matrix

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erythrocytes

red blood cells

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leukocytes

white blood cell

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platelets

produce clotting factors to plug damaged vessels

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function of circulatory system

  • transports dissolved substances

  • thermoregulation

  • osmoregulation

  • immunity

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53

name functions of three main components of circulatory systems

heart, blood, blood vessels

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hemolymph

blood and interstitial fluid mixed together

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interstitial fluid

fluid in and around tissues/organs

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arteries

carry blood away from heart and organs

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veins

return blood toward the heart

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capillaries

thin walled tissue that allows for diffusions

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advantages of open circulatory systems

  • requires less energy

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disadvantages of open circulatory systems

  • less O2 delivered

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single circulation

connects heart, gills, body tissues (one atrium, one ventricle)

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double circulation

two circuits (2 atria, 2 ventricles)

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two chambered heart

one venricle one atrium

  • fish

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three chambered heart

two atria one ventricle

  • amphibians

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four chambered heart

two atria, two ventricles

  • crocs, birds, mammals

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function of blood

transport oxygen and nutrients to lungs and tissues

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origin of blood in body

made in bone marrow

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what animal has an open circulatory system

  • arthropods, mollusks

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what animal has a closed circulatory system

  • mammals

  • fish

  • birds

  • amphibians

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respiration

take in oxygen and leave carbon dioxide

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cellular respiration

  • use oxygen to produce ATP

  • produce CO2 and water

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cutaneous respiration

has exchange occurs across the skin

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gills

outfoldings of body surface that are suspended in water

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tracheae

large tubes opening on body surface

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tracheoles

small tubes branching off of trachea

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lungs

infoldings of body surface for respiration

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ventilation

movement of respiratory medium over the respiratory surface

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breathing

alternate inhalation and exhalation of air

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respiratory pigment

proteins that can bind and release oxygen

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pharynx

intersection of paths for air and food

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trachea

where air passes from the larynx

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bronchi

tubes that enter into each lung

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bronchioles

branches of finer tubes from bronchi

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alveoli

tops of bronchioles of clusters of air sacs

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85

why do animals have to breathe

need to exchange gases to get ATP

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86

three general characteristics of respiratory surfaces

  • folded or branched

  • thin

  • moist

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87

what animal has cutaneous respiration

  • annelids

  • amphibians

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88

what animal has gills

  • molluscks

  • some annelids

  • crustaceans

  • echinoderms

  • fish

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89

what animal has tracheal system

  • insects

  • arachnids

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90

what animal has lungs

  • some amphibians

  • mammals

  • birds

  • reptiles

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91

why does ventilation take more energy in water than in air

  • concentration of oxygen much lower

  • water much denser and viscous

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92

positive pressure breathing

lung distension occurs through increasing pressure in airways

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93

negative pressure breathing

thorax and abdomen achieve lung inflation by distending the rib cage and abdomen

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what animal uses positive pressure breathing

amphibians

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what animal uses negative pressure breathing

mammals

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unidirectional airflow

air flows in one direction in lungs

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bidirectional airflow

moving back and forth into and out of lungs

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98

what animal uses unidirectional airflow

  • birds

  • crocs

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what animal uses bidirectional airflow

mammals

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what does respiratory pigment do

helps carry oxygen from lungs to the body

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