Reformation

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indulgence

Developed by medieval theologians, draws on treasury of merit left by the good works of Jesus Christ and the saints to decrease the amount of time a soul spends in purgatory

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Martin Luther

1483-1546; German monk and professor of theology, wrote the 95 theses, believed salvation came through faith alone, encouraged individual relationship between God and man

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John Tetzel

Early 1500s, sold indulgences to fund the rebuilding of St. Peter's basilica in Rome, claimed indulgences guaranteed entry into heaven for those buying and their relatives

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95 Theses

written in 1517 by Martin Luther; argued that indulgences had no basis in the Bible, that the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could be saved only through faith

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Pope Leo X

Pope from 1513-21, issued a bull in 1520 excommunicating Luther from the Catholic church, used papal money to help his family, began rebuilding St. Peter's Basilica

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Diet of Worms

1521, H.R.E. Charles V ordered Luther to appear here in front of an assembly of German princes and recant; Luther refused and was declared an outlaw

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German Peasants Revolt

1524 rebellion against landowners who burdened peasants with heavy taxes and obligations—sought to abolish serfdom and the manorial system

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Peace of Augsburg

1555—gave each German prince the right to determine the religion of his state, either Roman Catholicism or Lutheranism; did not account for other religions; Lutheranism became the predominant German religion

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John Calvin

(lived 1509-1564) wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536, influenced by Luther, founder of church that preached the doctrine of pre-destination, developed a theocracy in Geneva

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predestination

1536, idea that God determined who would and would not gain salvation when the world was created

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Anabaptists

Developed in late 1400s, radical sect of the Reformation, influential in western Germany, rejected idea of infant baptism, believed in complete separation of church and state

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Henry VIII

King of England, awarded title of "Defender of the Faith" from the Pope for denouncing Luther, later (1527) took over the English church when the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon

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Catherine of Aragon

lived 1485-1536, wife of Henry VIII, aunt of HRE Charles V, bore Henry VIII only one surviving child, Mary Tudor, no male heirs

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Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)

(ruled England 1553-1558), attempted to restore the Catholic Church in England, persecuted English Protestants, had 300 people burned at the stake

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Anne Boleyn

(1507-1536) second wife to Henry VIII, Henry wanted to annul his marriage with Catherine to marry her; mother of Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth); beheaded so Henry VIII could marry another

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Thomas Cranmer

appointed by Henry VIII to be the archbishop of the Church of England; annulled king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, wrote the Protestant Book of Common Prayer under King Edward VI, beheaded under Bloody Mary's rule

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Supremacy Act

made Henry VIII "the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England"; loyal catholics who refused to accept it were executed for treason, including Sir Thomas More

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Elizabeth I

(1533-1603) Queen of England - 1558 to 1603, Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She never married, strong-minded, England prospered and defeated the Spanish Armada under her rule, supported the arts and exploration, Supported Protestantism; Founded church of England.

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Elizabethan settlement

The 2 acts of Parliament that settled the religious question in England in 1559. The Act of Supremacy placed the English monarch as head of the church and the Act of Uniformity settled doctrinal questions such as the use of the Book of Common Prayer. The result was relative religious peace in England.

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Council of Trent

The series of religious meetings (ecumenical councils) held by the Catholic Church from 1545-1563 which ultimately reaffirmed most Church practices, including the authority of the Pope and the Church as interpreter of scripture. It did clean up some of the most notorious abuses and emphasized the education of the clergy. The beginning of the Catholic Counter Reformation.

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Spanish/Italian Inquisition

a group of institutions within the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy. It started in 12th-century France to combat religious sectarianism. Other groups investigated later included the Spiritual Franciscans and the Hussites (followers of Jan Hus). Generally chosen from members of the Dominican Order, the concept and scope of the practice significantly expanded in response to the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. In Spain, their focus became Jewish and Muslim converts, later focusing on Lutherans. These courts did not burn heretics - secular leaders usually took care of this.

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Jesuits

This Catholic order was created to serve as a Counter Reformation movement of priests who take vows of chastity and poverty and were expected to travel throughout the world in the service of the Pope, using education as their platform. Reforming the church of its abuses and teaching faith abroad were two of its guiding principles.

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Ignatius Loyola

Spanish soldier who was wounded in battle and whose spiritual conversion ultimately led to the founding of the Jesuit order in 1539 with absolute loyalty to the Pope. He wrote his Spiritual Exercises which laid out strict prayers and meditations to help define one's commitment to God.

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Teresa of Avila

(1515-1582) Raised in a wealthy Spanish household as well as a prestigious convent, this Catholic reformer founded a new convent based on poverty, the removal of class distinctions, hard work, and devout loyalty. She wrote many letters and books, focusing on the scientific connection between prayer, meditation, and the mystical union with God.

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European Witch Hunts

A series of persecutions that, while they existed long before, saw their peak during the European wars of religion, climaxing from 1580 to 1630. An estimated total of 40,000-60,000 people were executed during these events. The sociological causes have long been debated as a complex interplay of various factors that mark the early modern period, including the religious sectarianism in the wake of the Reformation, besides other religious, societal, economic and climatic factors.

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Ulrich Zwingli

(1484-1531) Swiss Protestant leader. Started what is called the Zurich Reformation with sermons that were based on the Bible, pushing the city into becoming a stronghold of Protestantism. His '67 Articles' were adopted by Zurich as the city's official doctrine in which images and relics were frowned on, clerical marriage was allowed, monks and nuns were encouraged to come out of their isolated existence, monasteries were dissolved and their wealth was used to fund education and poor relief. In 1525, he broke with Rome and the Mass became a very simple ceremony using both bread and blood which merely represented the body and blood of Christ. His church attempted to control moral behavior and strict supervision became common in Zurich. Died in battle fighting the Catholic monarchs of Austria.

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Max Weber & the Protestant Work Ethic

The book written by a German sociologist, economist, and politician. Begun as a series of essays, the original German text was composed in 1904. In the book, he wrote that capitalism in Northern Europe evolved when the Protestant (particularly Calvinist) moral code influenced large numbers of people to engage in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment. This belief became an important force behind the unplanned and uncoordinated emergence of modern capitalism.

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Church of England (Anglican)

First established in 1534, this institution separated from Rome while maintaining many Catholic practices. While it remained Catholic in many of its core principles, it does not recognize the Pope as its head and in procedures adopted the 39 Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer

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Mary, Queen of Scots

(1542-1587) Placed on the throne of Scotland as an infant, she was raised in France, was briefly Queen of France before returning to Scotland. Forced off the throne in 1567, she fled to the protection of Queen Elizabeth, who imprisoned her for 18 years before her beheading for an assassination plot against Elizabeth

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pluralism

the practice of holding more than one benefice, or "gift of land for services" which allowed for rents to be collected. While considered illegal, it was often overlooked and became a symbol of church abuse during the Reformation.

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absenteeism

the practice of Bishops living in Rome or on estates outside of their assigned dioceses, thus not directly serving their parishioners. Became another sign of church abuse during the Reformation.

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simony

the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges, for example pardons or benefices

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nepotism

Giving preference to church positions (popes, bishops, etc.) based on blood or family relationships rather than merit (ability); more important legislation against this practice issued by Pope Innocent XII in 1692

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Pope Alexander VI

(pope from 1492-1503) Corrupt, worldly, and ambitious pope; corruption contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation; practiced nepotism and simony

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Johann Eck

forced Luther to deny the authority of popes and councils in the 1519 Leipzig Debate over indulgences

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Brethren of the Common Life

late 14th century religious community in the Netherlands; chief aims were the education of a Christian elite and promoting the reading of devout literature; produced finely written manuscripts and later printed books; said to have paved the way for the P. Reformations

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Cardinal Wolsey

highest ranking church official and lord chancellor during Henry VIII's reign; dismissed from his position for not convincing the pope to annul the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

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ecumenical council

conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice

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sola scriptura

"by Scripture alone", Christian theological doctrine which states that Christian scriptures are the supreme authority in all matters of doctrine and practice; main argument of Martin Luther

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transubstantiation

according to the Catholic Church, the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during Mass becomes, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ—Calvinists did not believe this

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consubstantiation

In terms of the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper, the Protestant belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change whereby Christ is really present but the bread and wine are not transformed

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Lord's Supper

a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches. According to the New Testament, it was instituted by Jesus Christ during his Last Supper. Giving his disciples bread and wine during the Passover meal, Jesus commanded his followers to "do this in memory of me" while referring to the bread as "my body" and the wine as "my blood". Christians generally recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about exactly how, where, and when Christ is present.

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Baroque

The architecture, music, and art of the 17th and 18th centuries that followed mannerism and is characterized by ornate detail, drama, and heavy ornamentation, often by the use of vivid colors and gold. In architecture the period is exemplified by the palace of Versailles and by the work of Bernini in Italy. Major composers include Vivaldi, Bach, and Handel; Caravaggio and Rubens are important artists.

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Habsburg Dynasty

One of the most influential European royal houses, with a Spanish and Austrian branch that ruled over vast territories including the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the Netherlands. The height of their power came in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Inbreeding and the inability to maintain the empire were their eventual downfall.

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Habsburg-Valois Wars

a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire. Originally arising from dynastic disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples, they rapidly became a general struggle for power and territory among their various participants, and were marked with an increasing number of alliances, counter-alliances, and betrayals.

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John Knox

(1513 - 1572) This Scottish minister, theologian, and writer is considered the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. He exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer. He created a new order of service, which was eventually adopted by the reformed church in Scotland. He led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility. He helped write the new confession of faith and the ecclesiastical order for the newly created reformed church, the Kirk.

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Bernini

(1598 - 1680) An Italian sculptor and architect, he was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. "What Shakespeare is to drama, ________ may be to sculpture." He possessed the ability to depict dramatic narratives with characters showing intense psychological states, but also to organize large-scale sculptural works which convey a magnificent grandeur. working in Counter Reformation Rome, he used hidden light sources that could intensify the focus of religious worship or enhance the dramatic moment of a sculptural narrative.

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Carravagio

(1571-1610) Arrogant, rebellious and a murderer, this Italian Baroque artist's short and tempestuous life matched the drama of his works. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, were controversial, popular, and hugely influential on succeeding generations of painters all over Europe. He is best known for Judith beheading Holofernes, and David with the Head of Goliath

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