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a

Regarding the notion of an interface... a. it only contains the definition of operations (no implementation). b. we cannot extend interfaces. c. we cannot implement interfaces. d. none of the answers is correct

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b

if both, abstract classes and interfaces, serve to specify operations.. When should we select between the use of an abstract class or an interface? a. interfaces represent a better option if we want to reuse data and some operations. b. Abstract classes represent a better option if we want to reuse data and some operations. c. It does not matter, the result will be the same in terms of number of instances, flexibility, extensibility, etc d. none of the answers is correct.

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c

Regarding preconditions.. a. They must not be checked (neither by the client nor the provider) b. The client must not check preconditions. c. The client must assure preconditions (it is one of its obligations) d. The provider must assure preconditions (it is one of its obligations)

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c

In the context of contract-based programming and having inheritance (subcontracting) a. The postcondition in a subclass must be weaker (or equal) than the postcondition in the superclass. b. The precondition in a subclass must be stronger (or equal) than the precondition in the superclass. c. The precondition in a subclass must be weaker 8or equal) than the precondition in the superclass. d. None of the above is correct

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b

Regarding class invariants... a. they can sometimes be true b. they must always be true c. They must not be true if they are negative d. None of the answers is correct

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a

in the context of contract-based programming and having inheritance (subcontracting)... a. The postcondition in a subclass must be stronger (or equal) than the postcondition in the superclass. b. The postcondition in a subclass bust be weaker (or equal) than the postcondition in the superclass. c. The precondition in a subclass must be stronger (or equal) than the precondition in the superclass. d. none of the above is correct

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a

In the 4+1 architectural view model, which aspect is considered in the process view? a. the concurrency and synchronisation aspect. b. The mapping between software-hardware c. The representation of the information model d. Leave this question blank. e. The software organisation in the development environment

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d

in the context of design by contract and given some preconditions... a. The provider must guarantee preconditions (it is one of its obligations) b. Leave this question blank c. The client must assure postconditions (it is one of its obligations) d. The client must guarantee preconditions (it is one of its obligations) e. They must not be checked (neither by the client nor the provider)

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d

If we want an architecture to ease the evolution of existing functionalities... we must consider the next non-functional requirement: a. Extensibility b. Efficiency c. Simplicity d. Modifiability e. Leave this question blank

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b

What is coupling? a. A measure of the strength of association among modules in a computer program. b. A measure of the interdependence among the modules in a computer program. c. A measure of the strength of association of the elements within a module d. Leave this question blank e. A measure of the interdependence among the element within a module.

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a

a stack is a Data structure to manage data items following a LIFO (last Input First Output) strategy. A stack mainly provides two operations: 1) push(item) , to add a new element and 2) pop() -> item, to remove an element. Select the CORRECT answer: a. A class invariant for a stack is that the number of elements must be always positive (>= 0) b. A postcondition of the operation push is that the pop method must be invoked to allocate space for a new element. c. A precondition of the operation push is that the number of elements in the stack must be increased, once the new element is added. d. Leave this question blank e. A postcondition of the operation pop is that, at least, the stack must contain one element.

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e

Select the CORRECT answer in regards to the notion of interface: a. An interface is a set. of classes that offer a coherent service. b. A component can offer one and only one interface. c. Leave this question blank. d. Two interfaces offered by the same component are necessarily disjoint. e. The same interface can be implemented by two different components/classes.

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d

Regarding coupling and cohesion... a. The degree of cohesion and coupling does not have impact on the maintainability and evolution of a system architecture. b. A proper architectural model shall look for maximising coupling and minimising cohesion. c. Coupling is the degree of intra-dependence among there elements within a module and cohesion is the degree of inter-dependence among modules. d. A proper degree of cohesion and coupling helps us to minimise the number of dependencies. e. Leave this question blank.

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c

Given the next relationships and considering that the type of input parameters is a kind of precondition and the type of return values is a kind of postcondition, select the CORRECT answer: a. "MyFactory" breaks the contract between "Client" and "Factory" in the class invariants of method get. b. "MyFactory" does not break the contract between "Client" and "Factory" c. "MyFactory" breaks the contract between "Client" and "Factory" in the postconditions of method get. d. "MyFactory" breaks the contract between "Client" and "Factory" in the preconditions of method get. e. Leave this question blank.

<p>Given the next relationships and considering that the type of input parameters is a kind of precondition and the type of return values is a kind of postcondition, select the CORRECT answer: a.  &quot;MyFactory&quot; breaks the contract between &quot;Client&quot; and &quot;Factory&quot; in the class invariants of method get. b. &quot;MyFactory&quot; does not break the contract between &quot;Client&quot; and &quot;Factory&quot; c.  &quot;MyFactory&quot; breaks the contract between &quot;Client&quot; and &quot;Factory&quot; in the postconditions of method get. d. &quot;MyFactory&quot; breaks the contract between &quot;Client&quot; and &quot;Factory&quot; in the preconditions of method get. e.  Leave this question blank.</p>
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c

Which is NOT a characteristic of an extensible architectural model? a. Leave this question blank. b. It eases the addition of new characteristics c. It simplifies the architectural design. d. It increases the degree of abstraction e. It requires more design time.

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e

Which are the main software-related aspects that are addressed with the use of contracts? a. The scalability and standardisation of a software system. b. The accessibility and usability of a software system. c. Leave this question blank. d. The performance and completeness of a software system. e. The robustness and correctness of a software system.

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b

Which statement regarding preconditions is correct? a) The supplier must ensure that they are fulfilled (it is his obligation in the contract). b) The client must ensure that they are fulfilled (it is his obligation in the contract). c) The client should not check the preconditions. d) They should not be checked (neither by the client nor by the supplier).

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c

Given the following component diagram... a) A requires the interfaces of B. b) A implements the interfaces of B. c) B requires the interfaces of A. d) B implements the interfaces of A.

<p>Given the following component diagram... a) A requires the interfaces of B. b) A implements the interfaces of B. c) B requires the interfaces of A. d) B implements the interfaces of A.</p>
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d

Weak generalization implies that... a) Reuse is increased. b) Dependence is decreased. c) Yield decreases. d) All of the above are false.

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b

In the 4+1 view model, the development view... a) Illustrates the system from the perspective of the programmer, including the flow diagram. lessons. b) Illustrates the system from the perspective of the programmer, including the flow diagram. components. c) Explain the system processes and how they communicate, including the flow diagram. components. d) a) and b) are correct.

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a

Extensibility can be a criterion for the selection of an architecture. Which Of the following is NOT a feature of an extensible architecture? a) It makes the design easier. b) Provides a higher degree of abstraction. c) It requires investing time in the architectural design. d) Allows higher performance.

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b

6.In relation to the concepts of coupling and cohesion in the framework of modeling architecture of a system a) Coupling is the degree of communication between the elements of the same module, and cohesion the degree of communication between the modules. b) Good architectural modelling should seek to maximize cohesion and minimize coupling. c) Good cohesion and coupling ensure that dependencies are maximized. d) Cohesion and coupling do not influence maintainability and subsequent modification of an architecture.

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b

In design based on contracts and existing inheritance... a) The postcondition in the subclass must be less restrictive than or equal to that of the parent. b) The postcondition in the subclass must be more restrictive than or equal to that of the parent. c) The precondition in the subclass must be more restrictive than or equal to that of the parent. d) None of the above is correct.

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b

  1. Which of the following architectural views belongs to the 4+1 model? a) View of classes. b) View of use cases. c) Context view. d) Assignment view.

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c

  1. What does the contract syntax specify? a) Indicates the errors to the client. b) The creation of interfaces. c) The external aspect. d) The content of the contract.

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b

We have an application, which below there is a database where the information is stored. information. This database is controlled by maintenance personnel from a database manager program external to this application. If we have to do a requirements document, Do we have to have both the administrator and the normal user in account when making the document?: a) Both must be taken into account, and their corresponding classes must appear in document diagrams. b) The user should appear, but the administrator should not, since the user is an actor of the application, and the administrator when using an external program does not. c) The user should not appear, but the administrator should, since the latter has more weight that the user performs the necessary operations for the application to work. d) Neither of them should appear.

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d

An interface offers a consistent service if: a) Contains the implementation of the operations. b) It has attributes. c) It has navigable associations. d) You cannot have direct instances.

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d

Indicate which of these views does not belong to the 4+1 view model. a) Development view. b) Process view c) Logical view d) Functional view

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d

In Component Architecture, an interface is... a) A view that is shown to the user. b) Physical and functional connection between two independent devices or systems. c) A set of methods that implement operations. d) Set of operations that offer a consistent service.

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b

Which of the following characteristics does not belong to the realization? a) Reduce dependency. b) Mixed hierarchies of interfaces and classes. c) Decreases reuse. d) Alternative to multiple generalization, does not support many languages

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c

The criteria for selecting an architecture are: a) Extensibility, Modifiability, Simplicity and Efficiency. b) Extensibility, Modifiability, Complexity and Efficiency. c) Extensibility, Modifiability, Simplicity and Efficiency. d) Extensibility, Modifiability, Complexity and Efficiency.

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b

Which of the following is NOT one of the dimensions of the design? a) System. b) Domain. c) Specification. d) Concrete.

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b

The 4+1 architectural view model contains the following views: a) Conceptual view, class diagram and architectural model. b) Logical, process, development, physical and use case views. c) View of components, actor-system and reflexive. d) None of the above.

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b

What is an interface? a) It is a documented need for the content, form or functionality of a product or service. b) A set of operations that offer a consistent service. c) A set of abstract diagrams that represent the relationship between the components of a system. d) None of the above.

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d

Which of the following is not a benefit of Design for Contracts (DbC)? a) Better understanding of software construction. b) Effective for debugging, testing and quality assurance. c) Better understanding of the inheritance mechanism. d) None of the above.

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b

Indicate which of the following answers is correct in reference to the Formal Specification of the contract, a) Every contract has two equally essential parts: Customer and Supplier. b) Every contract has two equally essential parts: Syntax and Semantics. c) Every contract has two equally essential parts: Pre and Post condition. d) Every contract has two equally essential parts: service and operation.

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b

In Software Architecture, How is an effective modular decomposition achieved?, Mark the right answer. a) Maximum relationship, minimum process. b) Maximum cohesion, minimum coupling. c) Maximum relationship, minimum coupling. d) Maximum cohesion, minimum process.

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b

We have an application, below which there is a database where the information used by the users themselves is stored. This database is controlled by administrator personnel from a database manager program external to this application. Should both the administrator and the normal user be taken into account when making the conceptual models of the considered application?

a) Both must be taken into account, and their corresponding classes must appear in the diagrams of the requirements document. b) The user must appear, since he is an actor of the application and his data, but the administrator does not, because he uses an external program. c) The user should not appear, but the administrator should, since the latter has more weight that the user performs the necessary operations for the application to work. d) Neither of them should appear, since they are external agents to the system, and therefore they should not appear in the information model of the system, or conceptual model.

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b

On class invariants: a) They must be true at some point. b) They must be true at all times. c) They must not be true if they are negative invariants. d) None of the above is correct.

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c

In programming by contracts and existing inheritance... a) The postcondition in the subclass must be less restrictive than or equal to that of the parent. b) The precondition in the subclass must be more restrictive than or equal to that of the parent. c) The precondition in the subclass must be less restrictive than or equal to that of the parent. d) None of the above is correct.

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b

If both abstract classes and interfaces serve to specify primarily operations, when should we opt for one or the other? a) It would be convenient to use interfaces when data reuse is necessary, take advantage of the implementation of some methods and not only to define the behavior to through an operations interface. b) It would be convenient to use abstract classes when it is necessary to reuse data, take advantage of the implementation of some methods and not only to define the behavior through an operations interface. c) It does not matter, the final result will be the same (no instances created, capacity system extensibility, etc.). d) None of the above is correct

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a

Related to an interface... a) It only contains the definition of the operations, not their implementation. b) It cannot be extended. c) It cannot be implemented. d) None of the above is correct.

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a

A definition of “software architecture”... a) Software architecture is the fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, the relationships between them and with the environment, and the principles that guide its design and evolution. b) Software architecture is the functional organization of a system embodied into its components, the relationships between them and with the environment, and the principles that guide its design and evolution. c) Software architecture is the fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, the relationships between them and with the environment. d) Software architecture is the functional organization of a system embodied into its components, the relationships between them and with the environment, and the principles that guide its design and evolution.

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b

The degree of interaction between two modules is known as: a) Cohesion. b) Coupling. c) Inheritance. d) Instantiation.

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b

In relation to the difference between Class and Data Type (datatype), indicate the answer INCORRECT: a) The population of a Class is finite and variable, while the population of a Type of Data is finite or infinite, but in any case constant. b) A Class can be simple or structured, while a Data Type must be always plain. c) The attributes of a Class are fixed or variable, while the values ​​of a Type Data are fixed and immutable. d) A Class can participate in unidirectional or bidirectional associations, while a Data Type can only participate in unidirectional associations.

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a

How to decide without a concept of the domain should be modeled as a class or as a type of fact? Mark the INCORRECT answer. a) A concept of the domain will always be modeled as a class, since the concepts they are by their very nature abstract. b) A concept of the domain will be modeled as a class or as a data type depending on the system in which it is used, therefore the difference is relative to the system in question. c) A domain concept will be modeled as an object if it represents an instance domain specific. d) A domain concept will be modeled as a class if it represents a family or type of things, rather than a concrete thing.

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b

If an architecture is sought to facilitate the evolution and change of functionalities existing, the following non-functional requirement should be considered: a) Extensibility b) Modifiability c) Simplicity d) Efficiency.

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a

In the 4+1 model for documentation of a software architecture, what aspect is do you see in the physical or display view? a) The software-hardware correspondence. b) The organization of the software in the development environment. c) The capacity for concurrence and synchronization. d) The representation of the information model.

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a

A generalization is: a) The relationship between a general element and a specific element, where the element specific can add information and must be consistent with the general element. b) The specification of a set of connections between instances (links) that represent the structure and communication possibilities of the system. c) The function or transformation that can be applied to the objects of a class. d) The property shared by the objects of a class

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c

In the 4+1 model the logical view... a) describes the mapping of the software on the hardware and reflects the distribution aspects. b) describes the concurrency and synchronization aspects of the design. c) describes the object model of the layout when a layout method is used object oriented. d) describes the static organization of the software in its development environment. The Extensibility can be a criterion for the selection of an architecture.

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a

Extensibility can be a criterion for the selection of an architecture. Which Of the following is NOT a feature of an extensible architecture? a) It makes the design easier. b) Provides a higher degree of abstraction. c) It requires investing time in the architectural design. d) Allows higher performance.

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b

Point out the INCORRECT statement about data types. a) They can be primitive or enumerated data types. b) They can have operations. c) They are of general domain. d) Instances can be created, although they are anonymous, without identity.

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c

What is an application of association classes? a) Reduction of the cardinality of the association. b) Establishment of the roles of the association. c) Adding information to an association. d) Restriction of access to the instances of the association.

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a

If both abstract classes and interfaces serve to specify primarily operations, when should we opt for one or the other? a) It would be convenient to use abstract classes when it is necessary to reuse data, take advantage of the implementation of some methods and not only to define the behavior through an operations interface. b) It would be convenient to use interfaces when data reuse is necessary, take advantage of the implementation of some methods and not only to define the behavior to through an operations interface. c) It does not matter, the final result will be the same (no instances created, capacity system extensibility, etc.). d) It is indifferent, in both cases the state of the parent class or of the interface is inherited correspondent.

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a

In relation to the concepts of coupling and cohesion in the framework of modeling architecture of a system a) Good architectural modeling should seek to maximize cohesion and minimize The coupling. b) A good architectural modeling should seek to maximize the coupling and minimize cohesion. c) Cohesion and coupling do not influence maintainability and subsequent modification of an architecture. d) Only cohesion influences the maintainability and subsequent modification of a architecture.

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a

Which statement about interfaces is CORRECT? a) Two components can offer the same interface. b) In the same component the interfaces are necessarily disjoint. c) A component may offer only one interface. d) An interface is a set of classes that offer a consistent service.

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d

Which statement about postconditions is CORRECT? a) They must not be checked (neither by the customer nor by the supplier). b) The client must ensure that they are fulfilled (it is his obligation in the contract). c) The client must not check the preconditions. d) The supplier must ensure that they are fulfilled (it is his obligation in the contract).

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b

There is currently great pressure to have software systems that are capable of meeting new needs. For this, an architecture of system with the following characteristics: a) Modifiability. b) Extensibility. c) Usability. d) Scalability Regarding the architecture of a software system.

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a

Regarding the architecture of a software system. Mark the CORRECT statement. a) Every software system has an architecture, even if it has not been made explicit or documented. b) There are software systems that do not have any architecture. c) The software architecture does not consider in any case the possible evolution of the system. d) The software architecture does not consider in any case the possible addition of new features to the system.

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a

In the 4+1 model for the documentation of a software architecture, what aspect is do you see in the physical or display view? a) The software-hardware correspondence b) The organization of the software in the development environment c) The capacity for concurrency and synchronization d) The representation of the information model

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b

A stack is a data structure that allows you to store a certain number of elements following a LIFO (“Last Input First Output”) strategy through two essential operations: 1) push(item): inserts an element on the stack and 2) pop()→removes an element from the battery. Tick ​​the CORRECT answer: a) A precondition of the push operation is that the number of elements in the stack is increment after a new element is introduced. b) A precondition of the pop operation is that there is at least one element in the stack. c) A postcondition of the pop operation is that the number of elements on the stack is increment after an element is extracted. d) A postcondition of the push operation is that there is space on the stack for introduce a new item.

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c

Which statement about interfaces is CORRECT? a) Two components cannot offer the same interface. b) In the same component the interfaces are necessarily disjoint. c) A component can offer several interfaces. d) An interface is a set of classes that offer a consistent service.

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b

Extensibility is a selection criterion for an architecture, indicate the answer INCORRECT: a) It makes the design more complex. b) It necessarily implies a higher yield. c) Provides a higher degree of abstraction. d) It requires investing in general solutions. 17. In relation to the differences between

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c

Class and Data Type (datatype), mark the INCORRECT answer: a) The population of a Class is finite and variable, while the population of a Type of Data is finite or infinite, but in any case constant. b) The attributes of a Class are fixed or variable, while the values ​​of a Type Data are fixed and immutable. c) A Class can be simple or structured, while a Data Type must be always plain. d) A Class can participate in unidirectional or bidirectional associations, while a Data Type can only participate in unidirectional associations.

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b

Within the framework of interface specification and implementation, mark the answer CORRECT: a) At least one implementation must be provided for each interface specified. b) A class that implements an interface must necessarily implement all the methods of this by itself or in its subclasses c) You can create instances of an interface. d) In UML 2.0, attributes cannot be included in an interface specification 20.

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c

In the 4+1 model for documentation of a software architecture, what aspect seen in the process view? a) The software-hardware correspondence b) The organization of the software in the development environment c) The capacity for concurrency and synchronization d) The representation of the information model

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c

In relation to the concepts of coupling and cohesion in the framework of modeling architecture of a system a) Coupling is the degree of communication between the elements of the same module, and cohesion the degree of communication between the modules. b) Good architectural modeling should seek to minimize cohesion and maximize The coupling. c) Good cohesion and coupling has a positive impact in minimizing the dependencies. d) Cohesion and coupling do not influence maintainability and subsequent modification of an architecture

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d

Given the following component diagram... a) Information flows from “A” to “C”. b) Changes in “A” can affect “C”. c) “A” does not depend on “C”. d) “A” depends on “C” and changes in “C” can affect “A”.

<p>Given the following component diagram... a) Information flows from “A” to “C”. b) Changes in “A” can affect “C”. c) “A” does not depend on “C”. d) “A” depends on “C” and changes in “C” can affect “A”.</p>
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b

  1. On class invariants: a) They must be true at some point. b) They must be true at all times. c) They must not be true if they are negative invariants. d) None of the above is correct.

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b

Given the following relationships and placing the framework in design by contract and assuming that the type of a parameter is a precondition and the return type of a method is a postcondition, mark the correct answer: a) “MiFábrica” breaks the contract between the "Client" and "Factory" classes for the get method in the about the preconditions. b) “MiFábrica” breaks the contract between the get method regarding postconditions. c) “MiFábrica” breaks the contract between the "Client" and "Factory" classes for the get method in the relative to class invariants. d) “MiFábrica” does not break the contract between the "Client" and "Factory" classes.

<p>Given the following relationships and placing the framework in design by contract and assuming that the type of a parameter is a precondition and the return type of a method is a postcondition, mark the correct answer: a) “MiFábrica” breaks the contract between the &quot;Client&quot; and &quot;Factory&quot; classes for the get method in the about the preconditions. b) “MiFábrica” breaks the contract between the get method regarding postconditions. c) “MiFábrica” breaks the contract between the &quot;Client&quot; and &quot;Factory&quot; classes for the get method in the relative to class invariants. d) “MiFábrica” does not break the contract between the &quot;Client&quot; and &quot;Factory&quot; classes.</p>
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d

In a class hierarchy: a) It is a pure relationship between classes. b) It has no instances or multiplicity. c) The subclass inherits all the properties of the superclass. d) All of the above are correct.

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b

Indicate which of the following elements related to programming is similar to the component interface: a) An object. b) An abstract class. c) A static class. d) The implementation of a method. 1

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a

  1. Which statement about interfaces is CORRECT? a) Two components can offer the same interface. b) In the same component the interfaces are necessarily disjoint. c) A component may offer only one interface. d) An interface is a set of classes that offer a consistent service.

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e

Which of the following is NOT a view of the 4+1 view model? e) Association view. f) Process view. g) Development view. h) Physical view.

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d

In the following image:

a) There can only be information flow from “A” to “C”. b) Changes in “A” affect “C”. c) “A” does not require the presence of “C”. d) “A” requires the presence of “C” and changes to “C” can affect “A”.

<p>In the following image:</p><p>a) There can only be information flow from “A” to “C”. b) Changes in “A” affect “C”. c) “A” does not require the presence of “C”. d) “A” requires the presence of “C” and changes to “C” can affect “A”.</p>
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b

Regarding the concepts of coupling and cohesion in the framework of modeling architectural of a system: a) Coupling is the degree of communication between the elements of the same module, and cohesion the degree of communication between modules. b) A good architectural modeling should seek to maximize cohesion and minimize The coupling. c) Good cohesion and coupling ensure that dependencies are maximized. d) Cohesion and coupling do not influence maintainability and subsequent architecture modification.

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c

A stack is a data structure that allows data to be stored and retrieved following a LIFO (“Last Input First Output”) strategy through two essential operations: 1) push(item): push an item onto the stack and 2) pop() pop an item off the stack. Point out the correct answer: a) A postcondition of the pop operation is that there is at least one element on the stack. b) A precondition of the push operation is that the number of elements on the stack is increment once a new element is introduced. c) An invariant of a Stack class is that the number of elements must always be positive (>=0). d) All the previous answers are correct.

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b

In design based on contracts and existing inheritance... a) The postcondition in the subclass must be less restrictive or equal to that of the parent b) The postcondition in the subclass must be more restrictive or equal to that of the parent. c) The precondition in the subclass must be more restrictive or equal to that of the parent. d) None of the above is correct.

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c

Given the following relationships, placing the framework in design by contracts and assuming that the type of a parameter is a precondition and the return type of a method is a postcondition, mark the correct answer: a) "F1" breaks the contract between classes "C" and "F" for the get method as far as preconditions are concerned. b) "F1" breaks the contract between classes "C" and "F" for the get method regarding class invariants. c) "F1 "breaks the contract between classes "C" and "F" for the get method regarding postconditions. d) "F1" does not break the contract between classes "C" and "F".

<p>Given the following relationships, placing the framework in design by contracts and assuming that the type of a parameter is a precondition and the return type of a method is a postcondition, mark the correct answer: a) &quot;F1&quot; breaks the contract between classes &quot;C&quot; and &quot;F&quot; for the get method as far as preconditions are concerned. b) &quot;F1&quot; breaks the contract between classes &quot;C&quot; and &quot;F&quot; for the get method regarding class invariants. c) &quot;F1 &quot;breaks the contract between classes &quot;C&quot; and &quot;F&quot; for the get method regarding postconditions. d) &quot;F1&quot; does not break the contract between classes &quot;C&quot; and &quot;F&quot;.</p>
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a

Select the CORRECT answer in regard to the notion of interface: a) The same interface can be implemented by two different components/classes. b) Two interfaces offered by the same component are necessarily disjoint. c) A component can offer one and only one interface. d) An interface is a set of classes that offer a coherent service.

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b

Select the CORRECT statement regarding the software architecture of a system. a) There are software systems without any architecture. b) Any software system has an architecture, although it is not explicitly stated or documented. c) A software architecture never considers the possibility of evolving the system. d) A software architecture never considers the possibility of adding new capabilities to the system.

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c

If we want an architecture to ease the addition of new characteristics...we must consider the next non-functional requirement: a) Modifiability. b) Simplicity. c) Extensibility. d) Efficiency.

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b

In the 4 -1 architectural view model, which aspect is considered in the deployment or physical view? a) The software organization in the development environment. b) The mapping between software-hardware. c) The concurrency and synchronization. d) The representation of the information model.

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b

A stack is a data structure to manage data items following a LIFO (Last Input First Output) strategy. to stack mainly provides two operations: 1) push(item), to add a new element and 2) pop()->item, to remove an element. Select the CORRECT answer: a) A postcondition of the operation pop is that the number of the elements in the stack must be increased, once the new element is added. b) A postcondition of the push operation is that the number of the elements in the stack must be increased, once the new element is added. c) A precondition of the push operation is that the number of elements in the stack must be positive. d) A precondition of the pop operation is that the number of elements in the stack must be constant.

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