Schilling 1-3 exam review

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Freuds principal ideas and why he inspired controversy


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Freuds principal ideas and why he inspired controversy

Treated mental disorders and believed in the Unconscious self and was the creator of psycho analysis, sparked controversy as he believed that sexual desires were the basis of daily action

Unconscious self

desires, thoughts, memories that are well below the surface of conscious awareness


treatment of mental disorders.

Watson's influence of psychology

Proposed removing the study of consciousness to only study observable behaviors, forfather of behaviorism


a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavio

Skinner's contribution

radical behaviorist that believed free will was a lie with everything being controlled by outside forces.


believed Psychoanalysis and behaviorism were dehumanizing, they believed in a more optimistic approach.

what historical events contributed to the emergence of psychology

WW1 and WW2 where soldiers struggled from PTSD

trends emerging in the 1950s-1960s

(decision making, reasoning, problem solving, and language) became popular with new medical technology advancements to scan the brain. This returned to the study of consciousness and how behaviors are shaped by brain function, injuries to the brain, heredity, and neurotransmitters.

Why has western psychology shown more interest in cultural varibles

1.Advances in communication travel and international trade have “shrunk” the world 2. The ethnic makeup of the western world has increased.

Evolutionary psychology

(examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations.) the basic ideas being behaviors are different in different species from evolutionary processes

Positive psychology

(uses theory and research to better understand positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence) Developed by Martin Seligman after saying his daughter is grumpy and realizing he has a negative approach to life and so does psychology.

Growth of pcychology

The growth of psychology comes from the increase in interest in the field with a drastic rise in the American Psychological Association (APA) members from 35 to 75,000. Most have private practices, then working in colleges or universities, with clinical work being third.

Developmental psychology

Looks at development throughout life but mainly focus on the adolescent stage

Social psychology

FOcuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces governing behavior

Educational psychology

Studies how people learn and what's the best way to teach them

Health psychology

focus on what psychological factors relate to the promotion of good health

Physiology psychology-

Examine how genetic factors act on behavior on the brain

Experimental psychology

encompasses the tradition core topics of psychology focusing heavily on the science, sensational, perception, learning, condition, motivation, and emotion

Cognitive psychology-

Focuses on “higher” mental processes such as memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, etc


is concerned with the measurement of behavior and capacities, usually through the development of psychological tests. Determined to test personality, intelligence, and a wide range of abilities


interested in finding a person's constituency in behavior, which represents personality.

The three unifying themes

Psychology is Empirical. Psychology is theoretically diverse Psychology evolves in a social historical context


knowledge should be collected through observation


is a system of interrelated ideas (multiple theories in psychology)

social historical context

Psychology's past and current studies are used in psychology making it an ever growing amount of information while using the history in modern practice

4 unifying themes in psychology

Behavior is determined by multiple causes Behavior is shaped by cultural heritage Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior People's experience of the world is highly subjective

Behavior is determined by multiple causes

As psychology has developed more and more information of what governs behavior appear, people judge you based on one behavior


Shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutes, and other products of the community that are transmitted socially across generations

Critical thinking

is purposeful, reasoned, goal-directed thinking that involves problem-solving, formulating inferences, working with probabilities, and making careful thought out discussions.

Goals of the scientific enterprise.

Measurement and description Understanding and prediction Appliance and control

Measurement and description

We have to find a way to measure results


tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables


Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled and observed

Appliance and control

Information collected will have some practical use in the real world

Steps in a scientific experiment

Formulate a hypothesis Design a study Collect the data Analyze the data and draw conclusions.


is a research method in which the investigator can manipulate variables under carefully controlled conditions and observes in any changes occur to the second variable as an result

Independent variable,

Variable being manipulated

Dependent variable

Variable measured for change based on the independent variable.

Experimental group,

consists of subjects who get special treatment in regard to the independent variable

Control Group,

simular group not given the special treatment


exists when two variables relate to each other

Postive correlation

change in the same direction

Negative correlation

have inverse relationship

correlation variable


Naturalistic observation

The major strength of naturalistic observation is that it allows researchers to study behavior under conditions that are less artificial than in experiments.

Case studies

Case studies are particularly well suited for investigating certain phenomena, especially the roots of psychological disorders


Surveys are often used to obtain information on aspects of behavior that are difficult to observe directly. Surveys also make it relatively easy to collect data on attitudes and opinions from large samples of participants

Replication in research

is important to ensure the accuracy of research.