SHS Anatomy chapters 5&6 test

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what happens when skin cells are pushed away from the basale layer

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what happens when skin cells are pushed away from the basale layer

skin cells keratinized and die

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tissue under the dermis

subcutaneous

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3

Order of Cutaneous Membrane

epidermis, dermis, hypodermis (subcutaneous)

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4

4 main types of tissue

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

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5

most abundant tissue type in the body

Connective tissue

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6

intercellular connections that lock cells together

tight junctions

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7

tissue found in the respiratory tract

pseudostratified

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8

where the epidermis gets its nutrients from

dermis + diffuses up

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tissue found in the lung

simple squamous

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10

multiple layers

stratified

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11

top layer of the epidermis

stratum corneum

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12

deep layer of the epidermis

basale

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13

where we have the thickest skin

palms, soles, and fingertips

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tissue that composes the digestive tract

simple columnar epithelium

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15

Functions of the skin

protection, regulate temperature, produce vitamin D, and sense of reception

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the vitamin the sun and skin make

vitamin D

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17

where simple cuboidal cells are found

kidneys, ovaries, and few gland ducts

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18

produces melanin

melanocytes

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19

what melanin protects us from

UV radiation

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20

where simple squamous cells are found

alveoli and capillaries

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21

what the hypodermis is composed of

adipose and loose connective tissue

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22

the reaction to our skin overheating

sweating and blood vessels dilate

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23

glands that milk is secreted from

apocrine glands

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24

how heat is retained in the body

smooth muscle blood vessels contract

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25

folds in the dermis

dermal papillae

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cells that react to allergies in the CT and secrete histamine and heparin

mast cells

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cells in the CT that provide us with immune surveillance

macrophages

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causes eccrine glands to sweat

overheating

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bind structures, provide protection, store fat, transport fluids, and have a structural framework for the body

functions of connective tissue

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30

where sweat from apocrine glands are located at

axilla, groin, and nipple area

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31

most common type of cartilage

hyaline cartilage

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32

strongest type of cartilage

fibrocartilage

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where dense regular tissue is found

tissues and ligaments

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causes cartilage to take a while to heal

no direct blood supply

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35

most active region of cell division in our nails

lunula

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36

our spleen and lymph tissue are made up of what tissue?

reticular connective tissue

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37

large amounts of intercellular material

CT

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38

muscle tissue with intercalated disks and is involuntary

cardiac muscle

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39

striated and voluntary muscle

skeletal muscle

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40

burns associated with skin grafts

third degree burns

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41

membrane that opens to the outside

mucus membrane

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membrane that opens to the inside and secretes serous fluid

serous membrane

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cells that the most severe cancer comes from

melanocytes

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skin cracks easily and immune system is compromised

causes of elderly skin infections

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muscle tissue without striations

smooth muscle

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neural tissue that supports neurons

neuroglial cells

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fluid connective tissue

blood

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most common type of connective tissue

fibroblast

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rise in temperature to kill a pathogen

fever

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50

hypothalamus function

regulate body temperature

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51

sign of first degree burn

redness

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sign of second degree burn

blisters

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tissue replacement process

regeneration

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54

waxy protein that is secreted by the stratified squamous

keratin

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55

waxy stratified squamous that you can see

hair shafts

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56

cause of goosebumps

contraction of arrector pili muscles

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57

ABCD rule

asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter growth (6mm)

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5 layers of epidermis found in palms (top to bottom)

stratum corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

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cause of wrinkles during aging

skin loses elasticity

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4 signs of inflammation

redness, heat, adema (swelling), and pain

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jaundice

yellow pigment

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pallor

white pigment

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erythema

red pigment

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cyanosis

blue pigment

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predominant tissue of the papillary region of the dermis

Loose CT

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predominant tissue of the reticular region of the dermis

Dense Irregular

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4 stages of wound repair

Inflammatory, Migratory, Proliferative, Maturation

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Inflammatory

Blood clot forms, enhanced delivery of WBC, prepares for repair

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Migratory

Clot becomes a scab, epithelial cells begin to migrate, fibroblasts synthesizes scar tissue, damaged blood vessels repair, granulation tissue begins to fill wound

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Proliferative

Extensive growth of the epithelial cells, fibroblasts randomly deposit collagen fibers

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Maturation

Scab comes off, collagen becomes more organized, fibroblasts decrease in number, blood vessels restored to normal

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3 types of skin cancer

Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanomas

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Basal cell carcinoma

78% of all skin cancers, arise from stratum basale, rarely metastasize, has a pearly elevation with blood vessels in the middle, best chance of full recovery if detected and treated early

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Squamous cell carcinoma

20% of all skin cancers, arise from squamous cells of the epidermis, spreads rapidly if not removed, good chance of recovery if detected and treated early, hardened small red growth

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Melanomas

Arise from melanocytes, most dangerous, spreads rapidly, early detection and treatment is the key to survival

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