Geo5 Final

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3 Climate Zones

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Geography

132 Terms

1

3 Climate Zones

frigid, temperate, torrid

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2

Water invertebrate

500 million years, backbone

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3

Fish

400 million years, backbone and eyes

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4

Reptile (terrastrial)

300 million years, brain and nails

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5

Early mammal (shrew)

65 million years, hair and glands

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6

Primates

36 million years, thumbs and tail

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7

Homogenous (Chimpanzee split)

2 million years, 99% DNA and tailbone

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8

Homosapiens

200,000 years, appendix

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9

Population of 1930 (Grandparents)

2 billion

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10

Population of 1975

4 billion

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11

Population of 2011

7 billion

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12

Population of 2022

8 billion

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13

How many earths will be needed if live like American?

5 (4 additional)

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14

Population of California

40 million

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15

Measles and Tuberculosis

Cattle

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16

Flu

Pigs and ducks

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17

HIV/AIDS

Green monkey

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18

Epiphytes

plants that grow on plants

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19

Orographic Precipitation

wet side and dry side

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20

Inter tropical convergence zone

area where warm, moist air rises close to the equator

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21

Megafauna

large animals

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22

Paul Martin's Overkill or Munch Hypothesis

Humans went around the world, killed all megafauna (Except Africa)

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23

Types of Megafauna in LA

Pygmy mammoth, saber tooth, grizzly bear, giant ground sloth, bison, rhino, lion

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24

Potato

Andes

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25

Sugar

New Guinea/Indonesia

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26

Cacao

Andes

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27

Tea

East Asia (China)

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28

Shade Coffee

Ethiopia, good, maintains biodiversity

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29

Sun Coffee

Ethiopia, bad, deforestation and fertilizer

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30

Cotton

New World to Indus Valley

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31

Rubber tree

Brazilian Amazon

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32

Maize/Corn

cave in Mexico, #1 product

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33

Wheat

US, #2 product

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34

Rice

Southern Himalayas, feeds 2/3 Humanity, #3 product

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35

Origin of Orange

China

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36

Origin of Pineapple

Paraguay

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37

#1 Cash Crop in California

Marijuana from China

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38

California Big 5 Crops

Almond, grapes, lettuce, strawberries, lettuce, and tomatoes

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39

California Produces

$36 billion industry, 1/3 all veggies, 2/3 all fruits

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40

How to say hello in Tongva?

Miyiiha'

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41

Oak

acorns are primary food source

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42

Elderberry

richest source of Vitamin C, stem used for arrows and flutes

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43

Laurel Sumac

mosquito repellent

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44

Yucca (Our Lord's Candle)

leaves for water proof baskets

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45

Cactus

edible red fruit and edible green leaf

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46

California Coastal Sage

Burned for ceremonial reasons.

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47

Pussy Willow

aspirin from leaves, chewed for toothaches

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48

California Buckeye

Seeds crushed to catch fish

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49

1891 Forest Reserve Act

created reserves on federal land

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50

1960 Multiple Use and Sustained Use Act

  1. Outdoor Recreation

  2. Range land

  3. Timber

  4. Watershed Protection

  5. Wildlife and Fish Habitat

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51

Clear cutting

cutting down all the trees in an area at once

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52

Land-ownership in USA

Private, non-profit - 55% Native Americans - 3% State, local - 7% Federal - 35%

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53

How many dollars lost a year in the 80's?

$1.3 billion

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54

1964 Wilderness Act

protect national parks

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55

National Park Service Organic Act of 1916

"leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations."

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56

3 Things define an old growth forest

  1. Trees different size and age

  2. Snags

  3. Trees 200 to 500 years

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57

Redwood

tallest tree (96% cut 4% left 2% private 2% federal or state)

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58

Sequoia

Largest tree

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59

Bristle Cone Pine

oldest tree (5000 years)

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60

Rainforest

trees have leaves in canopy, dark

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61

Cloud Forest

very humid with epiphytes

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62

Elfin Forest

short forest on top of mountains because of wind

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63

Dry Forest

Tropics of cancer and capricorn, a lot of lianas (vines)

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64

Mangroves

salt water forests with coral reef fish

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65

Slash and Burn

cut forest, burn trees, recycle by planting

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66

Selective extinction

larger animals go first

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67

Species area relationship

relationship between number of species and size of area

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68

Biomes in California

Tundra, Boreal Forest, Temperate Grassland, Mediterranean Shrub, Hot/Cold Deserts

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69

Biomes NOT in California

Temperate Deciduous Forest, Tropical Rainforest, Tropical Dry Forest, and Tropical Savanna

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70

Nature Conservancy

Buys land

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71

Sierra Club

Lobby in CA and DC

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72

Activists (Green Peace)

Protest (tree sits, locks)

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73

Why has population increased?

less infant mortality and people getting older

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74

Grassland History

Evolved with humans and megafauna

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75

Native grass

Perennial (1+ year), evergreen

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76

Non-Native grass

Annual, dense

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77

Buffalo 1800

68 million (25 miles long)

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78

Buffalo 1870-1875

2.5 million killed annually

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79

Buffalo 1883

Last herd with 10,000 killed

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80

Buffalo 1890

Less than 1,000

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81

Buffalo Today

200,000 exist in public and private herds

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82

Vernal Pools

Formed in winter, dry in summer, different color rings, 200 species in vernal places, half endemic

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83

Oak Woodlands

20 species of oak in CA, half endemic

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84

Dutch Elm Disease

from Asia, fungi spread by beetles

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85

Sudden Oak Death

caused by fungi, affects CA oaks

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86

3 Coral Reef Types

Fringe reef, patch reef, and barrier reef

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87

Fringe reef

next to shore

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88

Patch reef

small, isolated patch

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89

Barrier reef

far from beach

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90

Where are Coral Reefs?

N30 to S30 65F to 91F Clear Water Shallow Water

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91

Coral

animal (polyp) and plant (zooxanthellae)

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92

Warm Currents

blue, not productive, east coast

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93

Cold Currents

green, very productive, west coast

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94

Kelp Forests

brown algae (cold), important habitat for aquatic species

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95

Trophic Cascade

Food chain disrupted by removing predator

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96

What percent of world population lives within 150 km of coast?

60%

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97

Best type of fishing

Hook and Line

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98

Worst type of fishing

Bottom trawling

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99

Bycatch

catching unwanted fish and animals

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100

Long-lining

hooks on line of buoys, ok impact

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