US GOV Unit IV (Executive Branch)

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natural born citizen 35 years old resident of US for 14+ years

requirements to be president

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candidate

a person seeking election for an office

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primary elections

preliminary elections held to demonstrate citizens' candidate preferences for each political party

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national convention

events held by each party to choose the pres/VP nominees for the general election

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nominee

the person chosen by a political party to be their official candidate in the general election

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closed primaries

primaries in which voters must be registered with one party and may vote only for candidates from that party

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open primaries

primaries in which voters may choose to vote in the primary for either party

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crossover voting

when a person who supports one party votes in the primary of the other party, either because of a candidate's views or to try to split the vote in the other party

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open

type of primary held in Arkansas

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caucuses

public elections held by each party (alternative to primaries)

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delegates

representatives from each party who choose the nominee

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party platform

formal statement of the party's position on current issues

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superdelegates

party leaders and officeholders who are uncommitted delegates at a party convention

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balancing the ticket

term for choosing a vice presidential nominee who will make the presidential nominee more electable

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general election

the main presidential election in November

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swing state

a state where elections tend to be very close between party candidates

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date of Election Day

Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November

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exit polls

surveys taken of voters as they leave polling places to help project election results

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Electoral College

the group of electors chosen by each state's legislature who choose the president/VP

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number of Senators + number of Representatives

calculation of a state's electoral votes

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23rd Amendment

amendment that granted 3 electoral votes to Washington, D.C.

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270

minimum number of electoral votes needed to win the presidency

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winner take all

states in which the electors are allotted based on the winner of the popular vote in that state

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faithless electors

Electoral College electors who vote for a candidate other than the one they are pledged to represent

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December

month in which the Electoral College votes

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•Candidate announces plan to run for office •Candidate begins preliminary campaigns to win support •Each state holds primaries/caucuses •Each party holds a national convention where delegates choose the party nominee •General election campaign begins •Election Day: Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November •Electoral College votes in December •Presidential inauguration: January 20

8 steps to becoming president

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lame duck

an outgoing official serving out the remainder of a term, after retiring or being defeated for reelection

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20th Amendment

amendment that moved Inauguration Day from March to January

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chief executive

role of the president that involves administering/enforcing laws through federal agencies or departments

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commander in chief

role of the president that involves managing the armed forces

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War Powers Act

limits presidential use of troops (deployments must be approved by Congress within 60 days)

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covert operations

activities unknown to the public and possibly Congress

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chief diplomat

role of the president that involves foreign policy/international relations

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executive agreement

written understanding between pres. & another head of state to do something (can be reversed by later presidents)

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legislative leader

role of the president that involves working with Congress and influencing laws

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chief of state

The role of the president as ceremonial head of the government

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party leader

role of the president as head of their political party

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executive order

a rule/command issued by the president that has the force of law

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22nd Amendment

amendment that limited presidents to 2 terms in office

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president of the Senate & assuming the presidency if the president dies/resigns/is removed/becomes incapable of performing duties

2 jobs of the vice president

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25th Amendment

amendment that establishes the line of presidential succession

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bureaucracy

administrative system in which agencies staffed mostly by nonelected officials perform tasks

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•Executive Office of the President •Cabinet departments •Independent administrative agencies

3 main levels of executive bureaucracy

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Executive Office of the President

offices/agencies that develop/implement the president's programs & policies

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cabinet

departments that help the president with constitutional duties

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secretaries

individuals that lead cabinet departments & report to the president

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independent executive agencies

government organizations that fall outside of cabinet departments, with specific functions

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administrative law

bureaucratic regulations/procedures that have the force of law

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foreign policy

a nation's plan for achieving its objectives in its interaction with other countries

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national security

goal of protecting the nation and its citizens/property abroad

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alliance security

goal of supporting foreign allies to maintain our alliances

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international stability

goal of fostering peace/cooperation in external conflicts

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economic development

goal of assisting developing economies, creating markets for US goods, offering economic relief/aid

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•National security •Alliance security •International stability •Economic development

4 major US foreign policy goals

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National Security Council

organization that provides the president with info/guidance regarding national security issues

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State Department

cabinet department in charge of international relations; manages embassies/consulates

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embassies

gov't offices in foreign capitals

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Department of Defense

cabinet department that maintains American security, oversees the armed forces; includes Joint Chiefs of Staff; headquarters at the Pentagon

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Joint Chiefs of Staff

group of highest-ranking military officers in the US that advise the president

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Department of Homeland Security

cabinet department that addresses terrorist threats/attacks on American soil

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Central Intelligence Agency

government agency that gathers intelligence/information on foreign countries

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diplomacy

foreign policy that involves managing international relations through U.S. representatives in foreign countries (and vice versa)

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foreign aid

money provided to promote stability in other nations

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sanctions

measures taken against a nation to influence its actions

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treaties

formal agreements between nations or groups of nations

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multinational organizations

bodies established to allow nations to work collectively on certain issues

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United Nations

forum for nations to negotiate issues of peace, conflict, & human rights

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NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

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NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

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