Perspective of self in Philosophy

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52 Terms
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Philos

means love

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Sophia

means wisdom

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Socrates

The true self is not the body but the soul and “The unexamined life is not worth living”

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The Socratic Method

Also called The Dialectic Method or the method involves asking a series of questions seeking to find consistency and point out contradictions.

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Plato

He established a school known as “The Academy”

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The forms are ageless

eternal

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The forms are unchanging

permanent

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The forms are unmoving

indivisible

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Plato’s Dualism

The Realm of Forms and Shadow

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The Realm of Forms

Composed of eternal things

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The Realm of the Shadows

Composed of changing

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The Reason The Spirited The Appetit

Plato’s View of Human Nature

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The Reason

Rational and is the motivation for goodness and truth

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The spirited

Non-rational and is the will or the thrive toward action

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The Appetites

Irrational and lean towards the desire for the pleasure of the body

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St. Augustine of Hippo

A Christian Philosopher

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Love for Physical Objects

Sin of Greed

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Love for Other People

Sin of Jealousy

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Love for the Self

Sin of Pride

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Love for God

Real Happiness

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Rene Descartes

Father of Mother Philosophy

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Descartes’ System

Intuition and Deduction

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Intuition

Ability to apprehend direction of certain truths

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Deduction

Arriving for truth in a step by step process

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Descartes famous qoute

"I think therefore I am"

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Soul/Mind

a substance that is separate from the body

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Body

A machine that is controlled by the will and aided by the mind

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John Locke

Nothing exists in the mind that was not first in the senses

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Law of Opinion Civil Law Divine Law

3 Laws that Locke use to describe Soul

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Law of Opinion

Actions are praise worthy and virtues

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Vice

Not virtues and praiseworthy

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Civil Law

Actions enforce by people in authority

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Divine Law

Set by God on the actions of man

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David Hume

There is no permanent/ unchanging self.

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2 types of perceptions

Impressions and Ideas

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Impressions

Immediate sensations of external reality

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Ideas

Recollections of impression

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The principle of resemblance The principle of contiguity The principle of cause and effect

3 principles of how ideas relate to one another

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The principle of resemblance

Sensing the likeness

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Principle of Contiguity

Associating an event to another level

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Principle of cause and effect

Principle that all events have sufficient causes

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Immanuel Kant

Instead of mind conforming it to the world, the external world conforms to the mind.

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Sigmund Freud

Revolutionizes ideas to determine human behavior.

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Three levels of Mind

Id Ego Superego

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Eros or life instinct and Thanatos or death instinct

Structure of mind

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Eros or life instinct

Energy of____ is called "libido"

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Thanatos or death instinct

Behavior towards destruction

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Gilbert Ryle

Self is the BODY

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Knowing that

Empty intellectualism

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Knowing how

using facts and PERFORM it using skills

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Patricia and Paul Churchland

Man's brain is responsible for the identity known as the self

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Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Focuses on the relationship between self-experience and the experience of other people.

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