AP World History: Modern: The Ultimate Guide

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History Within Civilizations

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History Within Civilizations

What rises out of collapse of classical civilization and interactions developing between new states Growth of long-distance trade

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World’s Major Religions

Most belief systems still are impacting historyMost major religions have divisions = subgroups and sects (focus more on overall religion)Understand theological basis of belief systems and impact of belief systems on social, political, cultural, military developmentsOrigin and spread of belief systems - cultural interactions

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Religious Mysticism

adherents within religions focusing on mystical experiences that bring them closer to divine - prayer, meditation

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Cultures: India, China, Southeast Asia, JapanContext:Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, a young Hindu prince - lived in Nepal from 563-483 BCE, rejected wealth and world possessions and became Buddha (Enlightened One)No supreme being - 4 Noble Truth: (1) all life is suffering, (2) suffering caused by desire, (3) can be freed of desire, (4) freed of desire following a prescribed pathMahayana Buddhism: great ritual, spiritual comfort - more complex but with greater spreadTheravada Buddhism: meditation, simplicity, nirvana as renunciation of consciousness and selfrejects caste system - appealed to those of lower rank

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Cultures: started as group of Jews, quickly expanded through Europe, northeastern Africa, Middle EastContext:Based around Jesus of Nazareth, a figure who claimed to be Messiah the Jews had awaited - teachings of devotion to God and love for othersBased on Bible teachingsWorld was created by God, but world has fallen from GodImpact: compassion, grace through faith appealed to lower classes and women

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Cultures: China (400 BCE+)Context:Founded by Confucius, educator and political advisor - thoughts and sayings collected in the AnalectsDeals with how to restore political and social order, not with philosophical or religious topicsImpact: Stayed within Chinese culture

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Cultures: IndiaContext:Belief in one supreme force called Brahma who created everything - many godsGoal of believer is to merge with Brahma - believe it takes multiple lives to accomplishImpact: religion and social caste system, which has prevented global acceptance of religion

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Cultures: caliphates (Islamic kingdoms), North Africa, central Asia, EuropeContextAllah presented words through prophet Muhammad, whose words were recorded in the Qur’anSalvation is won through submission to GodImpact: Rapidly spread to Middle East

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Culture: HebrewsContext:God selected a group of holy people who should follow his laws and worship themHebrew Bible - Torah, miracles, laws, historical chronicles, poetry, propheciesImpact: First of major monotheistic faiths

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Abbasid Dynasty

Islamic Empire from 750-1258 CE - capital in Baghdad Centre for arts and sciences - mathematics (Nasir al-Din al Tusi), medicine, writings (House of Wisdom library)Built around trade - used receipt and bill system

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What caused the decline of Islamic Caliphates?

Challenged by revolt of enslaved Turkish warriorsNew Shia dynasty in IranSeljuk Turk Sunni groupPersians, Europeans, ByzantinesMost importantly Mongols - overtook and destroyed Baghdad in 1258

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Middle Ages in Europe

Fall of Rome before Renaissance - complicated timeEastern Roman Empire became Byzantine EmpireWestern Europe: collapsed entirely - Christianity remained strong

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European Feudalism

Hierarchy social system of Middle Ages

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Feudalism Structure

King: power over whole kingdomNobles: had power over sections of kingdom in exchange for loyalty to king and military serviceVassals: lesser lords with sections of Noble land who could divide it further - estates were called fiefs or manors (self-sufficient)Male dominated - women could not own landPeasants or Serfs: worked the landHad few rights or freedoms outside of manorSkilled in trades, which helped them break out of feudal mode as global trade increased

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Emergence of Modern Countries

At end of Middle Ages, people began moving from feudal kingdom organization to linguistic and cultural organization

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Germany’s Path to Statehood (13th Century)

reigning family of emperorship died out, entering a period of interregnum (time between kings) Merchants and tradespeople became more powerful in the meantime

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England’s Path to Statehood (13th Century)

English nobles rebelled against King John and forced him to sign the Magna Carta - reinstated the nobles, laid foundation for Parliament Later divided into House of Lords and House of Commons

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France’s Path to Statehood (13th Century)

England began to occupy many parts of France which spurred revolts - Joan of Arc fought back English out of Orleans Hundred Year’s War

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Hundred Year’s War (1337-1453)

Unified France, leading to England’s withdrawal from the country

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Spain’s Path to Statehood (13th Century)

Queen Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married to unite Spain in a single monarchy and forced all residents to convert to Christianity - Spanish Inquisition

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Russia’s Path to Statehood (13th Century)

Taken over by Tartars (group of eastern Mongols) under Genghis Kahn in 1242 until Russian prince Ivan III expanded his power in 1400s and became czar

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China’s Song Dynasty (960-1279)

Confucianism justified subordination of womenNeo-Confucianism: Buddhist ideas about soul, filial piety, maintenance of proper roles, loyalty to superiors

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Foot Binding

Song Dynasty practice of bounding women’s feet after birth to keep them small

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China’s Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

Took over China again after brief period of Mongol dominance

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China’s Zen Practice

meditation and appreciation of beauty

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relatively isolated from external influences outside Asia for many years Feudal Structure

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Japan’s Feudal Structure

EmperorShogun (chief general)Daimyo: owners of larger pieces of land, powerful samurai (like knights)Followed Code of Bushido code of conduct - loyalty, courage, honourLesser samurai (like vassals)Peasants and artisans

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History filled with conflict between Islam and Hinduism Delhi Sultanate: Islamic invader kingdom in DelhiIslam took over Northern India - clash between Islam monotheism and Hinduism polytheismRajput Kingdoms: several Hindu principalities that united to resist Muslim forces from 1191 until eventual takeover in 1527

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Khmer Empire (9th-15th century)

Hindu Empire in modern day Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Beliefs were carried through Indian Ocean trade networkCrafted the Angor Wat temple

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Islamic Empire spread to North Africa in the 7th to 8th centuries - travelled through Sahara Desert and reached the wealthy sub-SaharanAn explosion of trade beganHausa Kingdoms

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Africa’s Hausa Kingdoms

off Niger River, series of state system kingdoms achieved economic stability and religious influence though long trade (salt and leather) - notably city of KanoPolitical and economic downturn in 18th century due to internal wars lead to their downfall

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3 Great Ancient Civilizations of the Americas

Maya, Incas, Aztecs

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Arrived in Mexico in mid 1200sExpansionist policy and professional, strict armyEmpire of 12 million people with flourishing trade, many of people enslavedWomen were subordinate, but could inherit property

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Andes Mountains in PeruExpansionist - army, established bureaucracy, unified language, system of roads and tunnelsMany people were peasantsWomen were more important and could pass property to their daughtersPolytheistic religion with human sacrifice - Sun god was most impor

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Middle Ages - Trading in Towns

Merchants emerged with new industry, referred to as Burghers, became politically powerful Towns often formed alliances with each otherHanseatic League

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Hanseatic League (1358)

Trade alliance though northern Europe to drive toward nationhood, increase social mobility and flexibility

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Middle Ages Architecture

Romanesque to Gothic - especially reflected in cathedrals Flying buttresses: tall windows and vaulted ceilingsOften had art and sculpture, music

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Growth of education and knowledge - founding of universities for men philosophy, law, medicine studyideas of Muslims and Greeks - came in conflict with religion

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Crusades (11-14th century)

Military campaigns by European Christians to convert Muslims and non-Christians, combat religious questioning, Heresies

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religious practices/beliefs not conforming to traditional church doctrine

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Pope Innocent III

issued strict decrees on church doctrine - frequently persecuted heretics and Jews, unsuccessful 4th crusade

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Pope Gregory IX

Inquisition: formal interrogation and prosecution of perceived heretics with punishments like excommunication, torture, executionchurch often referred to as Universal Church or Church Militant

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Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

Christian theologian who made advancements in Christian thought - faith and reason aren’t in conflict

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What led to urbanization in the Middle Ages?

Trade - cities usually were around trade routes Silk Road cities were the most populous - Baghdad, Merv, Chang’anConstantinople, Paris, Italian City-States

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set of tribes and clans that were superb horseman and archers

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Genghis Kahn

unified the tribes in Mongolia in the early 1200s to expand their authority over other societies - first invaded China in 1234

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Mongol Empire

panned from Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe - spit into hordes after death of Genghis Kahn, ruthless warriors destroying cities but remained peaceful after settling into cities

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Golden Mongol Horde

conquered modern-day Russia

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Kublai Kahn

Genghis Kahn’s successor - ruled China

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Mongol Culture

Didn’t really have a set culture - didn’t enforce religion or way of life on conquered nations, but didn’t make any cultural advancements

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Timur Lang

Mongol leader who took over India and destroyed everything - grew Islam in the nation

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Mongol Leadership

If any residents of society the Mongols took over resisted, they would immediately kill them, so most had no choice but to give in - they were ruthless fighters, organized and mobile

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Impact of Mongols

Great diffusers of culturePrevented Russia from culturally developingWorld trade, cultural diffusion, global awareness grew as they spread through Europe, the Middle East, and Asia

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Song Dynasty in China

bureaucratic system built on merit and civil service examination creating a lot of loyal government workers, improved transportation and communication and business practices Kept China stable and retained focus on Confucian principles

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Song Dynasty Industrialism

improved literacy with printed books from early form of movable type which increased productivity and growthHad some of the largest cities in the world and a powerful navyUtilized gunpowder, magnetic compass, advanced shipsTheir iron production between 800-1100 rivalled the British production centuries later

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Rise of Trade

Trade exploded from 1200-1450 Improved with better transportation and monetary systems

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Main Global Trade Routes

The Hanseatic LeagueThe Silk RoadThe land routes of the MongolsTrade between China and JapanTrade between India and PersiaThe Trans-Saharan trade routes between west Africa and the Islamic Empire

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Bubonic Plague

started in Asia in the 14th century and carried by merchants - killed about 1/3 people in England

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Indian Ocean Trade

Dominated by Persians and Arabs - western India to Persian Gulf to eastern AfricaGreat Zimbabwe: trading empire in Africa from 11th to 15th centuries

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Silk Road

China to Mediterranean cultures in early days of Roman Empire and from 1200 to 1600Cultural exchange through travellers stopping at trade towns - Kashgar, SamarkandSilk, porcelain, paper, religion, food, military technologies

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Hanseatic League

Made up of over 100 citiesCreated substantial middle class in northern EuropeSet precedent for large, European trading operations

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Expansion of Religion and Empire

Both natural spread of religion through contact over trade and intentional diffusion through missionary work or religious war - often caused conflicts between opposing cultures

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Other Reasons People Were on the Move

Ran out of room in certain places, but cities were always increasing in size as opportunities grew in themNew cities and empires drew people inMuslim pilgrimages

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Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled through T’ang Dynasty to India to explore Buddhism

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Marco Polo

merchant from Venice who travelled to China and Europe

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Ibn Battuta

Islamic traveler who travelled through Islamic world to India to China

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Margery Kemp

English Christian who travelled through Europe and Holy

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Sir Isaac Newton

English physicist and mathematician Developed the laws of motion and universal gravitationMade significant contributions to calculus and optics.

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Europe in 1300s

Europe had been Christian for over a thousand years - As countries began to unify, countries who had preserved their history influenced Europe to expand its worldview

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The Renaissance in Europe

As trade increased, people moved to the cities and an influx of money was experienced - a lot of money went to studying the past leading to the Renaissance

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focus on personal accomplishment, happiness, and life on earth instead of living for the goal of salvation

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Printing Press

invented by Johannes Gutenberg in mid 1400s made books easy to produce and affordable, and accessible to everyoneled to more literate people

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Protestant Reformation

Catholic Church was an undisputed authority in Europe - exploited nobles and peasants, who were getting increasingly frustrated and noticed its corrupt nature

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Paper the faithful could purchase to reduce time in purgatory Way the church exploited its members

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Martin Luther

German monk who published his list of complaints against the church most significantly proposed salvation was given directly through God, not through the church, which significantly reduced the church’s influencecaused a split in Christianity

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Luther’s followers - separated from Catholic Church

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Calvinism (John Calvin)

predestination - only a few people would be saved by God, great influence in Scotland and France

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Jesuits (Ignatius Loyola)

prayer and good works leads to salvation

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Catholic Reformation (16th Century)

Catholic church attempts to remedy some of their controversies and regains some of its credibility still wanted authority and controlled to Council of Trent - right back to the beginning

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Council of Trent

Reinstated pope authority, punished heretics, reestablished Latin as only language in worship

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Scientific Revolution

Expanded education and knowledge led to world discoveries and different views on the organization of the world

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Copernican Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus - discovered earth and other celestial bodies revolved around the sun and the earth rotated on its axis

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built off Copernicus’s theories and proved them forced to recant by the Catholic Church and put under house arrest

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Scientific Method

shift from reasoning being most reliable means of scientific meaning to scientific method (theory, documentation, repetition, experimenting)

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Tycho Brahe

Danish astronomer who made astronomical observations and compiled a comprehensive star catalog - also known for his contributions to the understanding of planetary motion and the development of the Tychonic system, a hybrid model of the solar system.

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Francis Bacon

Developed the scientific method, advocated for empirical observation and experimentation Wrote influential works such as Novum Organum and The New AtlantisBelieved in the importance of knowledge for practical purposes and the benefit of society.

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Johannes Kepler

German astronomer and mathematician who discovered the three laws of planetary motion, helping to revolutionize our understanding of the universe - also made significant contributions to the development of calculus and optics

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What did Scientific Revolution lead to?

Industrial RevolutionMany rejecting the church - atheists (believe no god exists), deists (believe God exists, but is passive)

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Became very powerful, supporting exploration, expansion of Spanish language and culture, and having a large naval fleet controlled parts of France, the Netherlands, Austria, Germany, Spain, AmericaSpanish Inquisition: mission to oust hereticsDutch Protestants under Spain revolted to form independent the Netherlands

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Focused on dominating costal Africa, Indian Ocean, Spice Islands - lost control to Dutch and British

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Elizabethan Age (1558-1603)

England experienced expansion, exploration, colonization in New World - golden age

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Muscovy Company

first joint-stock company - became British East India Company

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James I

succeeded Elizabeth in 1607 England and Scotland under one rulershipreforms to accommodate Catholics and Puritans failed

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Charles I

succeeded James in 1625 forced to sign Petition of Rights (limiting taxes and forbidding unlawful imprisonment) - ignored it for the next 11 yearsScottish invaded England out of resentment for Charles in 1640 - called the Long Parliament into session (sat for 20 years), which limited the powers of the monarchyParliament fought against James and executed him - began the English Commonwealth

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Oliver Cromwell

succeeded James I and became the first Lord Protector intolerant of religion, violent against Catholics and Irish - highly resented

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Charles II

exiled son of Charles I invited by Parliament to reclaim the throne as a limited monarchy after Cromwell died (Stuart Restoration) Agreed to Habeas Corpus Act

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Habeas Corpus Act

prevents people from arrests without due process

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James II

Succeeded Charles II after his death Highly disliked, fear he would make England a Catholic countydriven from power by Parliament (Glorious Revolution)

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English Bill of Rights (1689)

Signed by James II’s daughter Mary, who succeeded him

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)Hundred Year’s War in France (1337-1453(

Unified and centralized France under a strong monarchy

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