Biology 4TH QUARTER EXAM 5/21/24

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Which layer of the skin is this?
Top Layer
Contains keratin
Used more for protection

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63 Terms

1

Which layer of the skin is this?
Top Layer
Contains keratin
Used more for protection

Epidermis

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2

Which layer of the skin is this?
Second Layer
Contains: Connective tissue, nerve cells, muscle fibers, sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles

Dermis

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3

Which layer of the skin is this?
Last Layer
Stores fat
Helps the body retain heat

Subcutaneous

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4

What causes skin to be tan? What is Melanin?

Melanin, which is a brown pigment in our skin, causes the skin to tan.

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5

What are the main functions of the skin?

In cold temperatures, the body shivers, eratures, blood vessel contract, creating heat. In warm temperatures, body produces sweat, blood vessels dilate, cools body down. Skin respond to exposure to the sun's UV rays by producing vitamin D, which absorb calcium and is essential for proper bone formation. Unbroken skin keeps microorganisms out of the body Nerves make a person aware of pain, pressure, and changes in temperature.

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6

What kind of burn is this?
Damage: Cells in the epidermis are injured and may die
Effect: Redness and swelling, mild pain

First Degree

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7

What kind of burn is this?
Damage: Cells deeper in the epidermis die. Cells in the dermis are injured and may die.
Effect: Blisters and Pain

Second Degree

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8

What kind of burn is this?
Damage: Cells in the epidermis and dermis die. Nerve cells and muscle cells are injured.
Effect: Skin function lost, healthy skin needs to be transplanted, no pain because of nerve cell damage after the burn as gone through all the layers

Third Degree

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9

What are Ultraviolet rays and how are they harmful?

It can damage the DNA in skin cells, causing those cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.

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10

What are the two types of UV rays?

UVA and UVB

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11

What is the function of Keratin?

Makes the skin waterproof and protects the cells and the tissue that lie underneath

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12

How does the skin heal and what is that order?

1. The cut starts bleeding
2. Blood clots
3. Scab forms
4. White blood cells make sure anything that got in is killed
5. Skin cells divide

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13

What are sebaceous glands and what do they do to the skin?

The area around the hair follicles that lubricates the skin and hair.

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14

Is this a tanning bed or a fake tan?
Lets UV rays get into your skin
Damages the skin a lot

Tanning bed

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15

Is this a tanning bed or a fake tan?
Easy and reliable
Does not burn skin with UV rays
Approved but only for external use
SAFE

Fake tan

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16

What is Ossification?

The process of bone formation

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17

What is osteoblast?

The cells responsible for the growth and repair of bones.

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18

What is osteoclast?

Breaks down bone cells

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19

What is compact bone?

The outer layer of bones
Dense and strong providing strength and protection

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20

What is spongy bone?

Found at the center of short or flat bones and at the end of long bones and is less dense
Red bone marrow is found here

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21

What is bone marrow?

Red bone marrow produces red and white blood cells and platelets
Yellow bone marrow consists of stored fat

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22

What type of joint is this?
Ball-like surface fits into cuplike depression in another bone; allows widest range of motion, such as swinging arms
Example: Hip joint and shoulder joint

Ball-and-Socket

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23

What type of joint is this?
Primary movements is rotation, such as twisting lower arm
Example: Elbow joint

Pivot

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24

What type of joint is this?
Outward curve of one bone fits into inward curve of another bone; allows back-and-forth movement
Example: Knee joint

Hinge

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25

What type of joint is this?
Allows side-to-side and back-and-forth movement
Example: Wrist joint, ankle joint, and vertebra

Gliding

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26

What type of joint is this?
Joints in the skull that are not movable
Example: Skull joint

Sutures

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27

What kind of bone marrow is this?
Produces red and white blood cells and platelets

Red bone marrow

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28

What kind of bone marrow is this?
Consists of stored fat

Yellow bone marrow

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29

What type of muscle is this?
No stripes
Involuntary
Found in the intestines, stomach, bladder, and uterus

Smooth

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30

What type of muscle is this?
Stripped
Found in the heart
Involuntary

Cardiac

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31

What type of muscle is this?
Voluntary Muscles
Tendons connect muscles to bones

Skeletal

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32

What type of switch is this?
Fatigue easily
Provide great strength for rapid, short movements
Rely on anaerobic metabolism, which causes build up of lactic acid

Fast Twitch

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33

What type of switch is this?
Stores oxygen and serves as an oxygen serve
More endurance

Slow Twitch

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34

How do you divide the nervous System?

The Peripheral Nervous System and the Central Nervous System

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35

What is CNS?

The processing center for all information
Controls all decisions for the entire body
Receive, process, and begin a response to all sensory stimuli
Consists of the brain and spinal cord

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36

What is PNS?

The part of the nervous system outside the CNS
Contains all nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord
Connects the CNS to the rest of the body

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37

What is the cerebrum? How can you divide it?

The big part of the brain that is divided into two halves called the left and right hemispheres.

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38

What lobe is this?
Reasoning, judgment, self-control, voluntary muscle movement, and learning

Frontal

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39

What lobe is this?
Responsible for receiving and making sense of sensory information
Touch, pressure, heat, and pain
Makes sense of your surroundings, enhancing spatial awareness

Parietal

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40

What lobe is this?
Processes auditory information
Encodes it into one's memory

Temporal

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41

What lobe is this?
Linked to processing visual information

Occipital

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42

What lobe is this?
Responsible for processing complex emotion and memory (motivation

Limbic

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43

Where is the cerebellum and what does it do?

Below the occipital lobe. It controls your balance and coordination.

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44

What are the parts of a neuron?

Dendrite, Cell body, Axon, Axon Terminal, and Myelin Sheath

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45

What is an impulse and how does it travel through a neuron?

They carry an electrical impulse through the Nervous system to transmit information. This impulse travels from one to the other to relay the message to any point in the body.

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46

What is a synapse?

A junction where neurons communicate with each other.

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47

What are red blood cells?

Give blood red color, deliver oxygen to the body
Erythrocytes

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48

What are white blood cells?

Part of body's immune system, fight infections
Leukocytes

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49

What are platelets?

Disc-like fragments in blood to clot and stop bleeding when necessary
Thrombocytes

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50

What is the function of the cardiovascular system?

1. Transports oxygen and nutrients to the body
2. Carries disease fighting materials produced from immune system
3. Contains cell fragments and proteins for blood clotting
4. Distributes heat throughout the body and regulates body temperature

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51

What are the four chambers of the heart? Where does oxygenated/deoxygenated blood go?

Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Right Atrium, and Right Ventricle. Left: Oxygenate
Right: Deoxygenated

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52

What is maximal Heart rate and how can you calculate it?

The upper limit of what your heart and blood vessel system. 220 minus your age

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53

What are veins?

Vessels that return blood to the heart.
Largest:Inferior Vena Cava

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54

What are arteries?

Delivering blood from the heart to virtually everywhere in the body
Largest:Aorta

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55

What is mechanical digestion?

The physical breakdown of food

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56

What is chemical digestion?

Molecular breakdown of food

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57

What is the role of saliva in digestion?

It moistens the food and begins chemical digestion through the enzyme, salivary amylase.

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58

What is mastication and is it a form of chemical or mechanical digestion?

It ground/breaks up the food, which is mechanical digestion.

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59

What is peristalsis?

It is the involuntary, wave-lake movement of smooth muscle, moving food forward through the digestive tract.

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60

What are the functions of the stomach?

Break down food and turn it into chyme, an acidic paste.

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61

What does the small intestine do?

Further digests the food and absorbs nutrients.

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62

What is villi and what is its function?

Absorb broken down nutrients and here they enter the bloodstream via diffusion. They can then be transported anywhere in the bloodstream.

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63

What does the large intestine do?

Absorbs all water and electrolytes left in the food and expels the waste product: feces

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