Spanish conquest and settlement of the Americas

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Conquistadors

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1

Conquistadors

Explorer-soldiers of the Spanish and Portuguese empires during the 15th and 16th centuries, who sailed beyond Europe to colonize and open trade routes in the Americas, Oceania, Africa, and Asia.

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2

Who were conquistadors?

  • explorer-soldiers of the Spanish and Portuguese empires

  • 15th and 16th century

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3

How were Spanish weapons different from Aztec weapons?

  • Iron chest plates, helmets

  • horses

  • iron swords

  • guns

  • iron spears

  • weapons made to kill

  • Weapons did not need repairing after only one strike (unlike Aztec)

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4

Reasons for European exploration

Trade, resources, religion, and adventure were the main motivations for European exploration. The desire for trade routes to Asia, the search for new resources, the spread of Christianity, and the sense of adventure and excitement in discovering the New World were key factors.

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5

New Spain

The territories conquered by the Spanish, including Cuba, the Aztec Empire, the Tarascan State, the Incan Empire, Yucatan, and numerous islands in the Caribbean. The Spanish also encompassed territory in North America, the Philippines, and several South Pacific islands.

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6

Who was Malintzin?

native woman who served as a translator and advisor to Hernan Cortes during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.

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7

What was the name of the woman given to Hernan Cortes?

Malinalli/Malintzin/Dona Marina

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8

What was Malinalli’s Christian name?

Dona Marina

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9

What was Malintzin known as to the Spanish?

La Malinche

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10

Who gave Dona Marina to Cortes?

The Tabascans

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11

What did Malintzin do?

Translated, guided, advised

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12

What native tribes did Cortes use in his conquest

Totonacas, Tlaxcalans, Tabascans

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13

Moctezuma believed Cortes was _________________

Quetzalcoatl

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14

Why was Cortes mistaken to be a god?

Quetzalcoatl was meant to return in 1519 as a light skinned bearded man. Cortes matched this description and arrived in 1519.

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15

What did Moctezuma do in response of hearing of “Quetzalcoatl’s” return?

sent out gold and gifts to persuade Quetzalcoatl to go away and not claim is empire until Moctezuma died

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16

On what day did the Spanish meet the Aztecs for the first time?

8 November 1519

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17

What happened on the 8th of November 1519?

Moctezuma and Cortes met for the first time

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18

Moctezuma wanted to impress the Spanish. How did he do so?

carried out on a litter with a magnificent canopy of green feathers, gold and jewels, wore Highly decorated sandals, while rest of nobility was forced to walk barefoot in his Presence, Only his closest advisors were allowed to look upon his face, display was designed to show off his status, power, and wealth to Spanish

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19

Where did Moctezuma and Cortes meet for the first time?

wooden causeway outside Tenochtitlan

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20

Describe the exchange of gifts when they first met

Cortes offered necklace of glass beads. Moctezuma offered two ornate necklaces decorated with shrimps made of gold

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21

When did Cortes enter Tenochtitlan

8th November 1519

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22

When was Moctezuma placed under arrest?

14th November 1519

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23

Why was Moctezuma placed under arrest?

relations between him and Cortes became unfriendly

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24

How did Moctezuma realise Cortes wasn’t a god?

they were not behaving in the non-violent way Quetzalcoatl was supposed to, were using unknown weapons and their desire for gold was all too human

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25

What happened to Cortes in May 1520?

news from the Gulf coast reached Cortés that a much larger party of Spaniards had been sent by Governor Velazquez of Cuba to arrest Cortés for insubordination

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26

Who lead the Cuban expedition?

Pánfilo de Narváez

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27

What happened on the Gulf Coast?

Cortes defeated the Cubans and told the defeated soldiers about Tenochtitlan’s wealth. They agreed to join him

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28

Who was in charge of the city in May 1520?

Pedro de Alvarado

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29

What happened on May 22nd 1520?

Toxcatl Massacre

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30

Describe the events of the Toxcatl massacre

Alvarado ordered his men to massacre the priests and nobles during the Toxcatl festival

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31

What did the Toxcatl massacre lead to?

Aztec uprising and La noche triste

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32

When did Moctezuma die?

c. 30 June 1520

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33

How did Moctezuma die?

Cortes orders Moctezuma to calm his people down after the Toxcatl massacre. He is stoned to death by his own people

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34

What happened on the 30th of June 1520?

La noche triste

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35

What does “La noche triste” mean?

the sad night

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36

Describe the events of the 30th of June

in the middle of the night, the Spanish attempt to quietly withdraw from the city, Discovered by Aztecs. Aztecs were no longer fearful of the Spanish’s weapons and fought without fear. Spanish fought to escape. Cortes manages to escape unharmed, hundreds of Spanish killed and thousands of Tlaxcalan allies killed

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37

What happened to the Spanish after La Noche Triste?

retreated to Tlaxcala and Rested for 20 days

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38

What did the Spanish do after resting from La Noche Triste?

stated another campaign for Aztec allies in surrounding regions. Cortes won over half of the Aztec Territories, native peoples supported conquistadors through fear, other tribes joined willingly to overthrow Aztecs. 15000-20000 died in battle, women and children enslaved, some captives given to Tlaxcalans for sacrificial purpose and cannibalism

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39

When does Cortes return to Tenochtitlan? (After la noche triste)

May 1521

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40

What does Cortes do upon returning to the city (after la noche triste)?

laid siege to the city with the help of 550 Spaniards and 10000 Tlaxcalans

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41

How long did Cortes's final siege of Tenochtitlan last

93 days

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42

The Spaniards used to cut off supplies of and destroyed that supplied the city with fresh .

boats, food, aqueducts, water

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43

Why were the Aztecs vulnerable to attacks from the Spaniards? (after La noche triste)

starvation, small pox, dehydration

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44

What disease was introduced to the Americas from Europe? Why were they vulnerable to it?

Small Pox, no natural immunity

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45

What did Cortes do in response to the Aztecs fighting back?

he destroyed each and every building in the city

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46

What did the Spanish do after the Aztec empire fell?

Built a new city (Mexico City) on top of what used to be Tenochtitlan. Cortes found the colony of New Spain

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47

What were the immediate impacts of Spanish conquest in America?

native people lost their freedom, land, resources, wealth, culture and even their lives

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48

What did the Spanish feel about their society in comparison to the Aztecs?

The Spanish thought they had a right to take the land from the indigenous peoples and saw themselves as members of a superior civilisation and the bringers of salvation through Christianity.

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49

How did the cuisine of Europe change?

They were introduced to potatoes, tomatoes, corn, beans, cocoa and tobacco

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50

How were the Aztecs impacted?

Their cuisine, culture, materials, methods and environment was forever changed

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