bio 2 chap 4

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inorganic compounds

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195 Terms
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inorganic compounds

-do not usually contain carbon -H2, O, CO2, salts, bases(OH-), and inorganic acids

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organic compounds

-contain carbon -almost always contains hydrogen --usually contain oxygen and nitrogen -may also contain phosphorus, sulfur, and small amounts of calcium, iron, sodium, chlorine, potassium

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most abundant inorganic compound in body

water (60-80%)

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absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before its temperature changes appreciably

high heat capacity

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to evaporate, water requires large amounts of heat energy to disrupt the hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules together

high heat of vaporization

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water molecules exhibit a (+) end or pole, and a (-) end or pole. gives water the ability to dissolve in many substances (universal solvent)

polar molecule

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water is a __________ in many chemical reactions (hydrolysis & dehydration synthesis)

important reactant

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water forms a cushion (due to hydrogen bonding) around certain body organs to protect them from physical trauma

cushioning

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to raise 1mL of water 1 degree C it takes _________

1 cal (1mL/1C=1 calorie)

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blood is ________% water

80-85%

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lungs are _________% water

90%

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brain is _______% water

70%

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holds heat

latent heat affect

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h20 sticks to anything else

adhesion

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water sticks to water

cohesion

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salts

-inorganic -ionic compounds consisting of cations other than H+ and anions other than [OH-] -most abundant- contains Ca++ & PO4^3- -Na+,K+ important for nerve impulses -Fe^3+ forms part of hemoglobin

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molecule that transports oxygen within red blood cells

hemoglobin

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substances that conduct electrical current while in solution

electrolytes

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all salts are __________

electrolytes

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  • ion

cation

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  • ion

anion

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surrounds fetus within mother's body and plays role in protecting fetus

amniotic fluid

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Fe has affinity for ____________ and _________

carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

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acids

-yield H+ in water -sour taste -proton donors

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bases

-yield OH- in water -bitter -proton acceptors

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when acids and bases are mixed and chemically react to for a salt and water

neutralization

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what is the pH of alkaline/essential water?

9.5

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H donates an electron

"naked proton"

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the relative concentration of hydrogen/hydroxide ions in a solution

pH

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pH scale

-used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions

  • 0-14

  • low pH = high hydrogen ion concentration

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characteristics of carbon

-electroneutral (always shares electrons)

  • 4 valence shell electrons (bonds are equal) -can form chainlike molecules and ring structures (can be suited for specific roles, endless possibilities)

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those organic compounds made in the bodies of living things

biosynthetic organic compounds

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types of biosynthetic organic compounds

-carbohydrates -lipids -proteins -nucleic acids

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carbohydrates makeup

-C, H, O -no other elements -C:H:O ratio = 1:2:1

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carbohydrates formula

-Cn(H2O)n -are water containing carbon compounds

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types of carbohydrates

-monosaccharides -ogliosaccharides -polysaccharides

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monosaccharide

-simple sugar -value of n is between 3 and 7 -3 common (glucose, fructose, galactose)

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main sugar metabolized(broken down) by the body and used for energy

glucose (aka dextrose)

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sugar which upon consumption is converted to glucose by the liver

fructose (fruit sugar)

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not normally found in nature, but combines with glucose to form lactose( milk sugar)

galactose

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empirical formula of glucose

C6H12O6

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ogliosaccharides

-short chain of carbohydrates (2-10 monosaccharides) -linked by covalent bonding -broken down by digestion into simple sugars -combination of 2 monosaccharides forms disaccharide

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disaccharides are formed by _______________

dehydration synthesis

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glucose + fructose

sucrose (table sugar)

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glucose + galactose

lactose (milk sugar)

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glucose + glucose

maltose (malt sugar)

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polysaccharides

-most complex -aka glycans -long chains of glucose units (300-1000)

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way polysaccharides are referred to in medicine

glycans

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highly branched polysaccharides

starches

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glycogen

-animal starch -stored in in skeletal muscles and the liver

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cellulose

-unbranched -insoluable in water -can not be digested(only cows, camels, goats etc) -referred to as roughage/fiber -stimulates peristalsis

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wavelike contractions that move food through the digestive system

peristalsis

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good bacteria in kimchi, sauerkraut, yogurt

microflora

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lipid makeup

-C, H, O -sometimes nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus -H:O much greater than 2:1

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types of lipid

  • neutral lipid (fats)

  • phospholipids -steroids (basic structure of hormones) -waxes (protection in ear and plants)

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stored energies like triglycerides that protect and insulate our bodies

neutral lipids (fats)

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types of steroids

-cholesterol -biosalts -vitamin D -sex hormones -corticosalts

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hole under leaf of plants or hole for ostomy

stoma

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fiber supplement, made of psyllium

metamucil

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fatty acids

-principle components of lipids -carbon chains of varying lengths with an acid group attached at one end

  • saturated & unsaturated

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all available carbon bonds filled with H atoms in fatty acid chain

saturated

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all available carbon bonds not filled with H atoms in fatty acid chain (1+ double bonds in carbon chain)

unsaturated

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one or more double bond is present in fatty acid chain

monounsaturated

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two or more double bonds present in fatty acid chain

polyunsaturated

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enzyme that breaks down lipids

lipase

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LDL stands for

low density lipoprotein

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neutral lipids (fats)

-comprised of a glycerol molecule + 3 fatty-acids -most abundant lipids in body -important sources of energy reserve -referred to as tryglycerides -stored in adipose cells -found just beneath skin -help protect deeper organs from bumps/heat loss

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characteristics of saturated fats

-aka animal fats -solid at room temp -not essential to health -found in meats, eggs(yolks), cheese, milk -hard to digest, raises blood cholesterol levels -found in some plant foods such as coconut, coconut oil, and palm oil -no kinks

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characteristics of unsaturated fats

-aka oils -liquid at room temp -mono/polyunsaturated are the types -have kinks/double bonds

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phospholipids

-contain C,H,O,P -has glycerol, 2 fatty-acid chains, and a phosphate group -phosphate group is the head, is polar -fatty acid chains are nonpolar and make up tail

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tails of phospholipids are ________

hydrophobic

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heads of phospholipids are ___________

hydrophilic

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lipid bilayers formed in the presence of water

micelles

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principle components of cell membranes

lipid bilayers

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flat molecules formed from four interlocking rings called the steroid nucleus attached to a fatty acid chain

steroid

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cholesterol

-single most important steroid -found in all cell membranes -enters body through diet -produced by liver -keeps membranes fluid

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proteins

-most abundant biosynthetic organic compounds in cells -C, H, O, N (sometimes S, P, Fe) -amino acids

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building blocks of proteins

amino acids

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characteristics of amino acids

-22 different types, 20 used for proteins -distinguished by R group -bonded together by peptide bonds

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protein structure

-synthesized from any number and sequence of amino acids -50 to 1000s of amino acids -amino acids linked by peptide bonds

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primary structure

-the order of a protein's amino acids -proteins do NOT normally exist in this form (not functional) -each held together by a peptide bond

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the result of the interaction of certain amino acids through hydrogen bonding

secondary structure

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a spiral-shaped region formed by coiling of the primary structure

alpha helix

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has the shape of a fan-folded sheet of paper

beta-plated sheet

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