Basic Concepts, Definitions, Sampling Techniques and Probabilities

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53 Terms

1

data set

a collection of data values

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data value or datum

Each value in the data set is called a __ or a _______

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data

facts, figures and information collected on some characteristics of a population or sample

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qualitative or quantitative data

Data can be classified as

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Population

refers to the totality of objects, persons, places, things used in a particular study.

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Sample

any subset of population or few members of a population

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investigator

The person who plans and conducts the statistical investigation independently or with the help of others

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respondent

The person who answers/responds to the set of questions

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enumerator

The person who collects data by conducting an enquiry or an investigation

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Categorical data

A type of data that is used to group information with similar characteristics, also called qualitative data

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numerical data

A type of data that expresses information in the form of numbers, also called quantitative data

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Nominal Scale

classifies data into mutually exclusive (non-overlapping), exhausting categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data

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Ordinal Scale

classifies data into categories that can be ranked; however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist.

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Interval Scale

ranks data, and precise differences between units of measure do exist; however, there is no meaningful zero.

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Rational Scale

possesses all the characteristics of an interval measurement, and there exist a true zero

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Primary data

is collected firsthand by a researcher (organization, person, authority, agency or party etc) through experiments, surveys, questionnaires, focus groups, conducting interviews and taking (required) measurements.

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Secondary data

is readily available (collected by someone else) and is available to the public through publications, journals and newspapers.

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Variable

is a measure or characteristic or property of a population or sample that may have a number of different values.

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Variable

It is the characteristic or property that is measured, controlled, or manipulated in research.

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Constant

is a characteristic or property of a population or sample which is common to all members of the group.

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Retrospective

cohort studies are a type of observational research in which the investigator looks back in time at archived or self-report data.

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Observational studies

process or population is observed and disturbed as little as possible, and the quantities of interests are recorded.

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Design of experiments

is defined as a branch of applied statistics that deals with planning, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters.

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  • Retrospective

  • Observational studies

  • Design of Experiments

The three basic methods of collecting data

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Sampling

The process of selecting just a small group of cases from out of a large group

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  1. Impracticable

  2. Budget

  3. Time

  4. needed quickly

WHY THERE IS A NEED TO SAMPLE?

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n=N/(1+Ne^2)

Slovin’s Formula

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<p></p>

Andrew fisher formula

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(1+CL)/2

Confidence level to Z-score Formula

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Probabilistic Sampling

In every element of our sample the probability of them has the same weight. EPS (Equal Probability of Sampling)

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Stratified Sampling

a method of sampling that involves the division of a population into smaller sub-groups known as strata.

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Random Sampling

a subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Meant to be an unbiased representation of a group.

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Systematic Sampling

a type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point but with a fixed, periodic interval

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Cluster Sampling

a probability sampling technique where researchers divide the population into multiple groups for research. Researchers then select random groups with a simple random or systematic random sampling technique for data collection and data analysis.

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Non-Probabilistic Sampling

also called judgment or subjective sampling. This method is convenient and economical but the inferences made based on the findings are not so reliable

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Convenience Sampling

taken from a group of people easy to contact or to reach. For a example, standing at a mall or a grocery store and asking people to answer questions.

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Purposive Sampling

also known as judgmental, selective, or subjective sampling, is a form of non-probability sampling in which researchers rely on their own judgement

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Quota Sampling

a sampling methodology wherein data is collected from a homogenous group. You continue sampling for each cell until you get the desired number and then stop

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Snowball Sampling

is a recruitment technique in which research participants are asked to assist researchers in identifying other potential subjects.

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Probability

the likelihood or chance of an event occurring

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E(number of ways achieving success)/S(total number)

Probability Formula

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Experiment

used to describe any process that generates a set of data

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Event

consists of a set of possible outcomes of a probability experiment. Can be one outcome (simple event) or more than one outcome (compound event)

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Sample space

the set of all possible outcomes or results of a random experiment.

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element

Each outcome in the sample space

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  1. Convenience Sampling

  2. Purposive Sampling

  3. Quota Sampling

  4. Snowball Sampling

Non-Probabilistic Sampling

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  1. Stratified Sampling

  2. Random Sampling

  3. Systematic Sampling

  4. Cluster Sampling

Probabilistic Sampling

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Null space

a subset of the sample space that contains no elements and is denoted by the symbol  Æ. It is also called empty space.

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Intersection of Events ( A ∩ B)

the event containing all elements that are common to A and B

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1.      Mutually Exclusive Events ( A ∩ B = O/ )

they have no elements in common

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Union of Events ( A ∪ B )

containing all the elements that belong to A or to B or to both

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Compliment of an Event (A ∩ C)’

  • t A with respect to S is

  • the set of all elements of S that are not in A and is denoted by A’

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Statistical Unit

the items on which measurements are taken

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