unit 4 ap hug

studied byStudied by 123 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

State

1 / 54

Tags and Description

Geography

9th

55 Terms

1

State

An area organized into a political unit & ruled by an established gov. that has control over internal & foreign affairs.

New cards
2

Nation

A large group of people who are united by common cultural characteristics - language, ethnicity - or by shared history.

New cards
3

nation state

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular nation.

New cards
4

Stateless nation

A cultural group that has no independent political entity, although they often have a political organization.

New cards
5

Multinational state

State that contains 2+ cultural groups with traditions of self-determination & agree to coexist & recognize each other.

New cards
6

Multistate nation

A nation that has a state of its own but stretches across borders of other states.

New cards
7

Autonomus religion

A defined area within a state that has a high degree of self-government and freedom from its parent state.

New cards
8

Balkanization

The fragmentation of a state or region into smaller, often hostile, units along ethno-linquistic lines.

New cards
9

Sovereignty

The power of a political unit/state to rule/govern over its own affairs.

New cards
10

Self-determination

The concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.

New cards
11

Independence movement

Attempt to gain political independence for a group that believes it should be its own state(may be violent or peaceful)

New cards
12

Devolution

The transfer of political power from the central government to subnational levels of government.

New cards
13

Shatterbelt

A region that suffers instability because it is located between two other very different regions.

New cards
14

Choke-point

A geographic feature (land or sea) that can be used to block movement of people/goods.

New cards
15

Territoriality

A willingness by one person or a group of people to defend space they claim.

New cards
16

Relic Boundary

Boundaries that used to exist and can still be detected on the landscape.

New cards
17

Superimposed boundary

A boundary drawn by outside powers.

New cards
18

Subsequent boundary

A boundary drawn to accommodate religious, ethnic, linguistic, or economic differences.

New cards
19

Antecedent boundary

A boundary drawn before a large population was present.

New cards
20

Geometric boundary

A straight line drawn by people that does not follow any physical feature closely.

New cards
21

Consequent boundary

A boundary between opposing cultural, ethnic, political groups that was establed to settle disputes/end wars.

New cards
22

Defined boundary

A boundary established by a legal document such as a treaty that divides one entity from another.

New cards
23

Delimited boundary

A line drawn on a map to show the limits of a space.

New cards
24

Demarcated boundary

A boundary identified by physical objects placed on the landscape. Could be a sign/fence/wall.

New cards
25

Demilitarized zone

A zone within which military forces or operations/installations are prohibited.

New cards
26

Berlin Conference

In 1884-85 major empires from Europe met to establish claims on the continent of Africa.

New cards
27

Maritime boundary

Division of the water surface of the planet into maritime areas.

New cards
28

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

A systematic way to address water boundaries, created between 1973-82, signed by over 150 countries.

New cards
29

International waters

The areas of the sea that are not under the jurisdiction of any country.

New cards
30

Territorial sea

An area of sea - up to 12 nautical miles off shore - over which a sovereign state has jurisdiction.

New cards
31

Exclusive economic zone

Area of the sea in which a sovereign state has rights for exploration & use of marine resources (fishing, energy, etc.)

New cards
32

Voting districts

Defined districts with distinct boundaries where citizens (electorate) elect officials to represent their interests.

New cards
33

Redistricting

The redrawing of district boundaries so that each district has the same number of people.

New cards
34

Gerrymandering

The drawing of political districts by the party/group in power to extend or cement their advantage.

New cards
35

Unitary state

Governing authority is held primarily by the central government with very little power given to local governments.

New cards
36

Federal State

An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.

New cards
37

Ethnic separatism

A devolutionary force within a state - ethnic groups and minorities that may develop into independence movements

New cards
38

Ethnic cleansing

The forced removal of a minority ethnic group from a territory, involving violence and terror-inspiring means.

New cards
39

Terrorism

Organized violence aimed at government and civilian targets that is intended to create fear to further political aims

New cards
40

Irredentism

A movement to unite people who share a language or other cultural elements but are divided by a national boundary.

New cards
41

Supranationalism

This occurs when multiple countries form an organization to collectively achieve greater benefits for all members.

New cards
42

Democratization

The transition from autocratic (single person rule) to more representative forms of governance.

New cards
43

Trade agreements

Established rules about trade that all parties agree to follow.

New cards
44

Military alliances

Organizations of countries who agree to help each other militarily if attacked by another country.

New cards
45

Supranational organizations

Organizations formed with multiple countries to benefit all members. Orgs are centered on trade/military/problem-solving

New cards
46

United Nations

Founded in 1945 (following WWII) to take on issues facing humanity, such as peace and security.

New cards
47

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Founded in 1949 to provide mutual defense of member states. Members include US, Canada, Western/Central Europe.

New cards
48

European Union

Founded in 1993 for the political & economic integration of member states. 27 members mostly in Western/Central Europe.

New cards
49

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Founded in 1967 for the economic benefit of member states. Includes Cambodia, Indonesia, Singapore, Laos...

New cards
50

Arctic Council

Founded in 1996 to promote intergovernmental cooperation in the Arctic. Includes US, Canada, Russia, Finland, Sweden...

New cards
51

African Union

Founded in 2002 - an organization of African states that aims to encourage development and political stability.

New cards
52

Failed state

A state whose political or economic system has become so weak that the government is no longer in control.

New cards
53

Ethnic nationalist movement

An ethnocentric approach to various political issues intending to affirm a particular ethnic group.

New cards
54

Infrastructure development

An emphasis by governments on efficient transportation systems, intending to boost trade, communication, dependence, etc

New cards
55

Cultural cohesion

Capacity of different national/ethnic groups to make a mutual commitment to live together as citizens of the same state.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 172 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 116 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 178 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2627 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard95 terms
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)