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Gempei War

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Gempei War

  • 1180-85 (Heian)

  • Japan

  • Taira vs. Minamoto (Heike vs. Genji)

  • Hogen disturbance, successional dispute for the Emperor's throne, in which Minamoto Yoshitomo and Taira Kiyomori fought alongside each other

  • Kiyomori would receiving all rewards with none for Minamoto, upsetting him

  • Heiji Disturbance, Kiyomori and Yoshitomo going against each other, where Taira Kiyomori becomes dominant warrior and slaughters Minamoto family apart from one son

  • Taira emasses lots of wealth and power, angering the courtiers as he was a lower class warrior, despite not doing anything illegal

  • Minamoto Yoritomo, the surviving son, is sought out and would become a leader of the rebellion against Taira Kiyomori due to his father's reputation

  • War breaks out, marking emergence of warriors in Japan and the end of the Heian period, beginning of the Kamakura Bakafu

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Amaterasu

  • Ancient Japan

  • Mythological origins of Japan and kami (deities)

  • After her jealous brother defiled her living space, she would hide away in a cave, as the world fell into darkness, before being lured out by other deities

  • Sacred regalia of mirror, sword, and curved jewel were given by he to her grandson Ningi to become ruler

  • Ningi did not want to rule Earth, and so, would give the Sacred Regalia to his great-grandson Jimmu, who would rule as first emperor

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Meiji Restoration

  • Meiji Era

  • Emperor Meiji

  • Japan

  • Emperor moved from Kyoto to Edo (Eastern Capital - Tokyo)

  • Unequal treaties with Japan and the West, and in order to change, they needed to be viewed as equal, thus, becoming like the West

  • Supposed dramatic change with little bloodshed, as daimyo gave up their lands, due to their debt in which they government promised to take over the land and deal with the debt themselves

  • Centralized political power as domains become preferectures and daimyo replaced with governors, everyone was given names, rice bushels were converted into coin, and social classes were dismantles with samurai given money and no longer employed as samurai

  • Missions abroad with Japanese government learning the best warframe, the best economy, etc to model themselves after

  • The Meiji Constitution, where the emperor was sovereign, sacred and inviolable, based after the Prussian model

  • Plans for modernization, with high literacy, good work ethic, developed marker economy, and developed bureaucracy

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Lee Seong-gye (Yi Song-gye)

  • First king of the Joseon Dynasty

  • Has 3 sons, where the 3rd son was favored more

  • Genius 2nd son Taejong would become king after him

  • 3rd son was Sejong

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Yangban

  • Joseon Dynasty

  • Yangban: "Two groups" (Civil and Military branches of government), making up 50% of the population, always dressed in white to be in mourning, with large black hats

  • Civil was ranked a bit high in terms of the examination system

  • The Ruling Elite: the scholar gentry

  • Jungin: middle people (government officials)

  • Sangmin: good people (commoners)

  • Cheonmin: base people (e.g. slaves), 30% of Korean society, having a 1000 long year history of enslaving their own history, something not found within history

  • Class structure built into the language, as soon as one meets someone would have to figure out where one stands in regards to the other and switching to formal language (age + relations matter too)

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Russo-Japanese War

  • 1904-05

  • Russia vs. Japan

  • Surprise attack launched on Russia by Japan before declaring war

  • Baltic fleet made to circumnavigate around Africa and India, only to be completely sunk

  • Treaty of Portsmouth, in which Russia was defeated by Japan

  • Japan was the first non-white country to have been able to defeat a white country, inspiring people like Gandhi and others in non-white countries

  • Would lead to WWII

  • Formal annexation of Korea into Japan in 1910

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Jimmu

  • 660 BC

  • Ningi's great-grandson, descendent of Amaterasu

  • Was presented with the Sacred Regalia (sword, mirror, curved jewel), to rule Earth

  • Japan's first emperor, to which they would claim the longest unbroken hereditary rule

  • When Japan takes over rule, they would hold a 3 day celebration for Jimmu's first rule (*)

  • The royal family of Japan are thus viewed as deities themselves, and are looked up and worshipped by the people as such

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General MacArthur

  • American Occupation of Japan following the Pacific War (c. 1945)

  • US Army General

  • Would present Japan with a new constitution drafted by America written in a single week yet never amended

  • Gave Japan a British-style Parliament

  • Rights to liberty, life, free press, etc, women now free and no longer under me

  • War and renounced

  • Emperor was now just a symbol of the past

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Hojo

  • 1185-1333

  • Kamakura Bakuru

  • Hojo regents were regents to the Shogun

  • The Shogun himself was already a regent to the Emperor

  • Unsure of how this government worked, but somehow it did

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Comb-marked pottery

  • Ancient Korea during the neolithic period

  • One of the two types of pottery

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Kim Jong Il

  • 1994 - 2011

  • Sent people to bomb Burma, as well as sending Kim Hyon-hui to take part in blowing up a plane

  • Took part in the torture of people and building of nuclear weapons

  • Instance of North Korean spies kidnapped people off of the streets of Japan, such as middle school badminton player Megumi Yokota, and leading to tensions between Japan and North Korea

  • There is essentially nothing in North Korea, just the military

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Baekje (Paekchae)

  • One of the Three Kingdoms (18 BCE - 660 CE)

  • Buddhism entering the country in 384 CE

  • Would have to travel all the way around around because it was located down in the lower southern area of Korea

  • Rivalry among the Three Kingdoms (actually four), starting in 369 lasting three centuries of warfare between Goguryeo and Baekje

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Shotoku Taishi

  • Yamato, 574-662

  • First historical figure within Japanese history that can be truly pinpointed

  • 12 Cap Rank System, developed due to fighting to establish a clear cut system of ranking based off of hat color, with warring clans brought together as aristocratic families

  • Fighting families were brought into the political system in which they could compete against each other, in which they could work hard and move up along the ranking

  • Confucian and Buddhism precepts brought in with the 17 Article Constitution

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Commodore Matthew Perry

  • 1854

  • Period in which countries were ore involved with the East, and America equally wanted to become involved in expanding to Japan, (Manifest Destiny going west to California, past California was Japan)

  • Commodore goes to Japan with battleships of war and a letter of friendship

  • Wanted to go to China but were in need of coal, water, food and other supplied to get there -Due to Opium War in China, Japanese were initially distrusting and freaked out when Perry states that he needs an answer soon

  • Japan forced into opening up, forming unequal treaties, communicating in Dutch and Chinese, never English or Japanese

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Hiroshima

  • 1945

  • America would begin building atomic bombs, in which the explosives would occur inwards of the bomb as opposed to outside

  • Building of cities overnight within America solely to produce the bombs

  • There were some issues with the detonators, so there was no sure fire way of knowing whether or not they would go off

  • Killed mostly civilians, another bomb also dropped on Nagasaki as well

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Kamikaze pilots

  • Pacific War

  • Japan would begin advancing in the opposite direction rather than retreating

  • Had an abundance of planes but no trained pilots, as pilots needed to be heavily trained

  • Airplanes piloted by non-STEM university students, as STEM students were more needed

  • Planes would aim for boats, ineffective, but very scary

  • Were NOT at Pearl Harbor

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Bakufu

  • 1185, Kamakura Bakufu

  • Shogunate = Bakufu

  • Shogun: Barbarian quelling Generalissimo, head warrior

  • Only a single shogun

  • Initially the Shogun lived in Kamakura, with the Shogun and Emperor sharing power

  • During the Muromachi period, the emperor was now weaker with a much stronger shogun

  • During the Edo period, the Shogun has power, not the Emperor

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Ch'unhyang

  • Joseong Dynasty

  • Beautiful girl, Ch'unhyang, daughter of a prostitute, hanging out with her friends on the swings

  • Governor's son goes to the gazebo and sees her and her ankles, telling his servent to go get her

  • Ch'unhyang says she will not go to the Governor's son and instead gives a poem to tell him to come see her

  • When he arrives at her home, he sees calligraphy and music, a sign that she was well educated

  • Mother disapproved of their relationship, and he had to take his exams before marrying her, writing on her skirt as a way of promising

  • After the governor's son leaves, a new governor is brought in, asking all the single women to be brought to him, including Ch'unhyang, who would turn him down, resulting in her being beaten

  • Would say that as there was only one king, there was only one husband, hence, yelling out Confucian ideologies while being beating to show how educated she was and angering the governor

  • Governor's son does well on exams, above everyone else, and is called by the King to go incognito to rumage out any bad rulers

  • Dresses as a poor yangban, returning home, and hears that Ch'unhyang will be beaten to death on the governor's birthday

  • Visits Ch'unhyang in prison, pretending that he has lost everything, to which she tells her mother to sell her silk robes to give him the money

  • The Governor's son would then overtake the governor and establish his rule over the people, freeing Ch'unhyang

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Sword Hunt

  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi's rule (1536-1598)

  • Only samurai needed swords

  • Everyone else was made to turn in their weapons, as they no longer needed it now that Japan was unified

  • They claimed to use it for nails to build a giant Buddha Statue

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Turtle boats

  • Joseon Dynasty

  • Japanese invasion of Korea by Toyotomi Hideyoshi

  • Admiral Yi Sun-sin's turtle boats

  • Metal shell and dragon head spitting fire with canons on the side

  • Boats with spikes covered by hay to prevent someone from climbing on board

  • Guerrilla warfare to slowly kill off the Japanese troops by cutting off their shipping orutes

  • Admiral Yi thus considered a hero

  • Factionalism tensions become more pronounced after Japanese invasion

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Kim Jong Un

  • 2011 - Present day

  • Current leader of North Korea

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Hangul

  • Joseon Dynasty

  • Chinese was sometimes a bit impractically for Koreans since there are 10,000 characters

  • Sejeong gathered a number of scholars to create a script, leading to the creation of Hangul in 1443

  • Is the only language during which we know when and why it exists

  • Simple and perfect system for writing Korean

  • Lead to many people being able to read ancient texts

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Jungin

  • Yangban society

  • Middle people, petty government officials

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Korean War

  • 1950-53

  • North invades the south

  • Kim Il-Sung wants to take over all of Korea after consulting with Mao Zedong and Stalin to launch a surprise attack

  • Incheon has a huge tidal difference, leaving troops led MacArthur to fend for themselves to cut across, going South and North to take over -Chinese push back the Americans and everyone else South

  • Chinese push back the Americans and everyone else South

  • During the fleeing of Korean citizens down south, American airforced begun dropping bombs on any villages or refugees where there may be North Korean soldiers

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Dutch Studies

  • Tokugawa Period (1600-1868)

  • The Dutch were only allowed to live in Nagasaki, as due to Japan's relative seclusion

  • During the Tokugawa period, majority of human body information was based off of what was known from the Chinese and ideals of Confucianism, in bodily righteousness energies within the body

  • Dutch medicine, however, was more based off of the human anatomy and the organs within

  • Initially disregarded, but upon slowly dissecting the human body. they would find that they were accurate to Dutch findings

  • Would thus contribute to Japan opening up to the Western world

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Haiensa Temple

  • Korea

  • Goryeo (Koryo) period

  • Contains 80,000 blocks of Buddhist teachings

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Jomon

  • Jomon Period (10,000 - 300 BCE)

  • Japanese were one of the first peoples to invest in pottery

  • Patterns of the pottery were made from cords (jomon: cord-pattern)

  • Was important for holding and storing items

  • Developed cooking food, such as boiling water, making softer food for elderly and infants

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Oda Nobunaga

  • 1534 - 1582

  • First of the Three Great Unifiers

  • Would kick out the Shogun after their alliance ends, thus unifying the country through brute force, using the muskets brought in by the Portuguese, and using them effectively

  • Would only unify 1/3 of Japan

  • When a couple of his samurai partially rebelled, he killed off all his general, and then presented them gilded in gold in the center of his New Years party as a message

  • Thuggish monks were causing problems and warned to stop

  • Oda would then go up to the monks and light the temples on fire, killing at the women, children and monks who tried fleeing

  • Oda died when a general who rebelled against him shot and injured him, so he commited ritual suicide (seppaku)

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Goguryeo (Koguryo)

  • 37 BCE - 668 CE

  • First purely Korean state

  • Buddhism enter in 372 CE

  • Modern-day area of North Korea; very little is known about is

  • Cave paintings and hunting scenes

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Silla

  • 57 BCE - 935 CE, Silla Period 668-918

  • Eventually emerges as the strongest kingdom

  • Bak Hyeokgeose. horse walking by and sees an egg where he hatches out of and he becomes the first king of Silla

  • Introduction of Buddhism during within Silla

  • During the Sui attack,Silla does very little until the other kingdoms are exhausted in which they would over take the rest of the fighting

  • Becomes a Tang tribute state and a thoroughly Buddhist Country

  • Silla emulated the Tang, develops a writing problem with only employing Chinese character but low education

  • Silla on the decline

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Toyotomi Hideyoshi

  • 1536 - 1598

  • Started off as a peasant, then with his sheer wits. he would become Oda Nobunaga's sandal bearer, and then a soldier for him

  • Other generals dislikes toyotomi Hideyoshi for being of peasantry background, thus often assigning him difficult tasks

  • He would avenger Oda Nobunaga, killing the person who shot him, and then taking over in his place

  • Would slowly be able to unify the rest of Japan through brute force and cunning methods

  • Sword hunt, seizing weapons from everyone and giving swords only to samurai

  • Froze social classes (samurai, peasants, artisans, merchants)

  • Created a system to balance out the power structure with koku (bushel of rice) to determine scale of power

  • Wanted to take over China and thus launched an attack on Korea

  • Had multiple women, one of many children whom he would view at his next heir, and in order to assure succession. he would kill his nephew and all of his nephew's relatives

  • Falling gravely ill, he would bring together 5 generals, telling them to look after his son, which they would not do apart from one

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Onin War

  • 1467-77

  • Civil war between the people of Japan over successional disputes of the Shogun

  • Kyoto destroyed, along with all of the art

  • After there was a severe lack of power and money for the Emperor, and now the Shogun no longer had any power

  • Real power would then shift to the countryside, ahd the daimyo and domains there.

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38th parallel

  • Korean War, 1950-53

  • The boundary between North and South Korea

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Goryeo (Koryo)

  • 918 - 1392

  • Gungye "Son of the Bow", both with a full set of teeth and seen as a curse, blinded and muddles as opposed to being killed, becomes bitter and ruthless ruler

  • Wang Geon outsmarts Gungye, gathering his troops and defeating him to establish Goryeo

  • Goryeo: high mountains and sparkling water

  • Establishment of Chinese political systems in Korean along with civil service examinations

  • People in Korea also tend to bathe more frequently

  • Hereditary classes: aristocrats, yangmin ("good people" commoners), cheonmin ("base people" slaves, etc)

  • Buddhism scriptures in wooden blocks all alphabetized, any form of Buddhism would be based off of the wooden scriptures in Korea because they were complete

  • Mongol conquest, with Koreans employed to build ships to invade Japan, failing both times

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Fujiwara

  • Heian, 794-1185

  • Fujiwara No Michinaga - Ultimate Fujiwara Regent

  • Promoting one's sons was seen as improper, so instead, daughters and their son-in-laws were promoted

  • Was how they could gain power, as their daughter could marry the Emperor

  • In order to gain power, one needed to get close to the Emperor and have power be bestowed upon you

  • Fujiwara regents were fairly good rulers because they did not gain power of a hereditary path, but through being smart and playing with the political game

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Tokugawa Ieyasu

  • 1542 - 1616, Tokugawa Period

  • Swear loyalty to Toyotomi Hideyoshi's son

  • Withdraws forces from Korea to then try and emass power

  • Ieyasu and Oda were allies, with Hideyoshi as Oda's underling

  • Ieyasu would move to a tiny fishing village called Edo, where he would build up his influence there

  • Engages in a battle with Hideyoshi's son and wins

  • Retires as Shogun, his son being given the next line of success

  • Hostage system and alternate attendance, daimyo families requires to live in Edo with daimyo made to live in Edo every other year to ensure meeting with Shogun and no rebellion as their families were in Edo

  • Seclusion as a closed country, Christian missionaries kicked out with only Dutch living in Nagasaki, slightly trade with China and Korea

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Syngman Rhee

  • Postwar Korea, 1945-50

  • Ruled over the South

  • Lives in Princeton, New Jersey as a professor

  • Catholic who admired and likes America

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Shinto

  • Ancient Japan

  • No founder nor scared texts, just dealing with kami and purity

  • Means "way of the kami"

  • Different kami, different prayers for kami

  • Not seen as a religion because of how embedded it was into their personal lives

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Dangun

  • 2333 BCE

  • Celestial being Hwanung prayed to by bear and tiger to become human

  • Were given garlic and ginsend and told to hid in a cave for 100 days from sunlight

  • Tiger leaves and bear stays, becoming a female without a male

  • Bear-woman prays to Hwanung who impregnates her and she gives birth to Dangun

  • Dangun becomes first ruler of Korea in Pyeongyang

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47 Ronin

  • Tokugawa Period

  • Lord Asano is a daimyo, who, while during his stay in Edo, attacked court official Kira and was sentenced to commit seppaku

  • The samurai of Lord Asano’s domain now become ronin, masterless samurai, and vow to get revenge on Lord Kira

  • The 47 ronin are lead by Oishi to exact their revenge on Kira, beheading him with the same sword that Asano died by

  • After having killed Kira, all samurai were subject to commit seppaku as opposed to being killed

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Sangmin

  • Joseon dynasty

  • Yangban society

  • "Good people" (Commoners)

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Korean Nationalism

  • Japanese colonialism in Korea, where the King dies, possibly by murder. but said to have been by natural causes

  • No single central organization

  • Samil (Manse) movement: March 1, 1919 with a Proclamation of Independence

  • Movement spreads throughout nation, protesting treaties not being held up and protesting them to leave

  • Movement is an amalgamation of people; all with different political and religious views, but wanting to get rid of the Japanese

  • Lead to brutal suppression by the Japanese

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King Yeongjo (r. 1724-1776) and Prince Sado

  • 1724-76

  • Example of Confucian rule

  • Prince Sado has some issues such as showing up in his wife’s bedroom with the severred head of a servent

  • Disappointing father due to killing people, but he didn’t want to try to avoid tainting the family name, and also didn’t want to kill him to avoid murder

  • Tells son to kil himself only for the noose to come undone

  • Son is shut inside of a coffin and dies from suffocation

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Minamoto Yoritomo

  • 1147 - 1199

  • Son of Minamoto Yoshitomo

  • Spared by Taira Kiyomori after his wife begged him to let him live

  • Was instead sent to live elsewhere under house arrest, having a child with the daughter of the man looking after him

  • People's dislike of Taira Kiyomori would rally around Minamoto Yoritomo in spite of him having no experience

  • Leader in the Gempei war, as he would win and end to Heian period

  • Aristocracy would cease to exist, and emergence of warrior culture

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Article IX

  • American Occupation of Japan following the Pacific

  • Officially renounced war

  • Japan could no longer have an army, navy or air force

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"Rich Country, Strong Country"

  • Meiji Era (1868 - 1912)

  • Building and modernization of Japan

  • Economic modernization all at once

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Sino-Japanese War

  • 1894-1895 Meiji

  • Divided government in Korea, some supporting the Chinese, others supporting Japanese

  • Religious rebellion (Dongha Rebellion) in Korea where both the Chinese and Japanese invaded to suppress but neither wanted to leave, so they both went to war

  • Japan defeats China, taking over Liaotung Peninsula and gaining money in the form of an indemnity to strengthen military

  • Would later be made to return it to China by France, Russia and germany, and their only options were to give it back or go to war with all three

  • Japan would choose the later, yet still remain upset over this

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Comfort Women

  • In the final 10 years, Japanese soldiers went into the city of Nanjing, China

  • For 6 weeks, Chinese civilians(women) were raped and killed by soldiers, an idea to tame their soldiers by building comfort stations

  • Rounding up of women, the vast majority of them Korean, to work in these stations

  • Rounding up of girls, families told they were to be workers in factories

  • Women expected to serve 30 men of weekdays, men lined up to enter the comfort houses

  • After the war, the women suffered from medical reasons, becoming infertile

  • Question of being able to go home was hard to discuss, and such, they suffered in silence

  • Could not tell the American soldiers because they were vastly men, who would not sympathize with them

  • Comfort women still a political issue today between Japan and Korea

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Cheonmin

  • Joseon Dynasty

  • Yangban society

  • "Base people" (e.g. slaves)

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Shogun

  • Kamakura Bakufu

  • Shogun: Barbarian Quelling Generalissimo, head warrior

  • Only one single Shogun

  • During the Kamakura period, the Shogun and emperor shared power

  • During the Muromachi period, the emperor was weaker with a stronger shogun

  • During the Edo period, the Shogun was all powerful, with the emperor under house arrest

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Sankin Kotai (Alternate Attendance)

  • Tokugawa Period (1600-1868)

  • Daimyo families were required to live in Edo year round, with the Daimyo themselves made to live in Edo every other year

  • Was done so to ensure the Daimyo could meet the Shogun

  • One wouldn't rebel because their families were still living in Edo

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Kami

  • Ancient Japan

  • Deities, sometimes translates as "God"

  • Izanami (female) and Izanagi (male), brother and sister, husband and wife, creator deities

  • Amaterasu, sun goddess, child of Izanami and Izanagi

  • Ningi, grandson of Amaterasu

  • Jimmu, great-grandson of Ningi

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Kofun

  • 250 - 550 CE

  • Tombs shaped like Keyholes

  • Consisting of ornaments and Haniwa (clay figures) inside of them

  • Imperial tombs that have not been opened up because of Korean items that may have been sealed within them

  • Also possible that because mostly elites had fled from Korea to Japan during their Three Dynasties period, most of the Japanese elites were actually Korean

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Taira Kiyomori

  • 1118 - 1181

  • Head of the Taira Family of Warriors

  • Hogen Disturbance (1156) of succession dispute between the emperor, which Taira Kiyomori fought alongside with Minamoto Yoshitomo, head of Minamoto family of warriors

  • After the battle, Taira Kiyomori would receive all the rewards with none for Minamoto

  • Heiji Disturbance (1159), Taira Kiyomori vs. Minamoto Yoshitomo

  • Taira Kiyomori becomes the dominant warrior within Japan after killed Minamoto Yoshitomo along with more of his family apart from one son after Taira's wife persuaded him to spare him

  • Amasses lots of wealth and power, which angers the courtiers because he was a warrior, and should not affiliate with the upper class

  • He does nothing illegal, but would play the estate-guarantor game to protect his estate

  • Eventually would become regent to the Emperor, and then his grandson would become emperor

  • People's dislike of Taira Kiyomori would rally around Minamoto Yoritomo (son) and make him a leader of the rebellion in the Gempei War

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Donghak Rebellion

  • Donghak—“Eastern Learning”

  • Choe Je-u killed due to the events of the Taiping rebellion, but the rebeliion still occurs today

  • Western missionaries living within Korea, causing problems

  • People in Seoul petition for economic relief, and then rumor that the Donghak are being persecuted because of a rebellion spreads

  • Chinese send troops to put down the rebellion

  • Korean government attempts to reform

  • 1892 protest against persecution of Donghaks

  • “Drive out the Japanese dwarfs and the Western barbarians, and praise righteous-ness.”

  • Today the religion is known as Cheondoism

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Kim Il Sung

  • Postwar Korea and Korean War

  • Takes over the North

  • Claims to be born in the same spot that Dangun (Korea's first leader) was born

  • Wants to take over all of Korea, launching a surprise attack

  • North Korean version of the war is much different due to being rewritten by Kim Il-Sung, in which victory was achieved

  • However, because he failed during his invasion of the South, he aided help from China

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Kabuki

  • 1603, Tokugawa Period

  • Okini's "Kabuki Dance" in Kyoto, of young woman dancing. meeting a man and inviting him into a backroom for intimacy

  • Lead to Kabuki, in which prostitutes would dance on the streets

  • Developed into a more elaborate story tile

  • Women's Kabuki banned due to fighting between man for women

  • Boy's Kabuki banned from a similar reason to prevent young boy prostitution

  • Onnagata: female impersonators, men who would play women

  • Becomes an elaborate theater drama

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