Nutrition

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Regulation of Blood Calcium

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Nutrition

21 Terms

1

Regulation of Blood Calcium

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, calcitriol

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2

Symptoms of Dehydration

1% to 2% loss: feeling of thirst 

4% loss: tired, dizzy, headache

10% loss: decreased heat tolerance and weakness

Ultimately leads to:

  • Kidney failure 

  • Coma

  • Death

Contributing factor:

  • Heat exhaustion 

  • Heat stroke 

  • Kidney stones

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3

Ratio of sodium and chloride

1:1.

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4

Difference between trace and major vitamins

Trace vitamins and major vitamins are two categories of essential nutrients that our bodies require in different quantities.

Major vitamins, also known as macro vitamins, are needed in larger amounts by the body. These include vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin D, and the B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12). Major vitamins play crucial roles in various bodily functions, including energy production, immune system support, and the maintenance of healthy skin, eyes, and bones.

On the other hand, trace vitamins, also known as micro vitamins, are required in smaller amounts. These include vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin K. Trace vitamins are essential for processes like vision, blood clotting, and antioxidant protection.

While both trace and major vitamins are important for overall health, the main difference lies in the quantities needed by the body. Major vitamins are required in larger amounts, while trace vitamins are needed in smaller amounts.

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5

pH of blood

7.35 to 7.45.

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6

1 vitamin that only found in animal food sources

vitamin B12.

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7

Function of water

Medium for chemical reactions 

Participates in chemical reactions 

Distributes nutrients to cells

Lubricant for joints 

Moistens organs, GI tract, eyes, skin 

Maintains body temperature 

Maintains blood volume

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8

The intra and extra ions that regular fluid balance

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9

Understanding hypertension (Dash Diet)

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10

Vitamin D

The needs goes up as we age

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11

Which mineral is present in the highest quantity

calcium.

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12

What promotes bone health

Calcium and vitamin D are essential for promoting bone health. Calcium helps in building and maintaining strong bones, while vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium. Regular weight-bearing exercises, such as walking or weightlifting, also promote bone health by stimulating bone growth and strength. Additionally, a balanced diet that includes other nutrients like magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin K can contribute to overall bone health.

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13

Vitamin that is essential during pregnancy

Folic acid It helps in the development of the baby's neural tube and reduces the risk of certain birth defects.

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14

what is an Antioxidant

a substance that inhibits oxidation, which is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals and damage cells. Antioxidants help neutralize these free radicals and protect the body from oxidative stress. They are commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods. Some examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.

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15

what mineral supports immune system and bone health

calcium.

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16

Conditions linked to Iron Deficiency and Toxicity

Conditions linked to Iron Deficiency:

  1. Iron-deficiency anemia: A condition characterized by low levels of iron in the body, leading to a decrease in the production of red blood cells and impaired oxygen transport.

  2. Fatigue and weakness: Iron is essential for the production of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the body's tissues. Insufficient iron levels can result in fatigue, weakness, and decreased energy levels.

  3. Pale skin and brittle nails: Iron deficiency can cause a pale complexion and brittle nails due to reduced oxygen supply to the skin and nail beds.

  4. Shortness of breath: In severe cases of iron deficiency, the body may struggle to provide enough oxygen to the tissues, leading to shortness of breath, especially during physical activity.

Conditions linked to Iron Toxicity:

  1. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder characterized by excessive absorption and accumulation of iron in the body's tissues. This can lead to organ damage, including the liver, heart, and pancreas.

  2. Iron poisoning: Accidental ingestion of high doses of iron supplements or exposure to iron-containing substances can result in iron poisoning. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and in severe cases, organ failure.

  3. Joint pain and arthritis: Iron overload can cause joint pain and inflammation, leading to arthritis-like symptoms.

  4. Diabetes complications: Excess iron in the body has been associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease and kidney damage.

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17

Conditions linked to Florid Deficiency and Toxicity

Florid deficiency and toxicity are conditions related to the element fluorine.

Florid deficiency occurs when there is a lack of fluorine in the body. This can lead to dental problems, such as tooth decay and weakened tooth enamel. It can also result in skeletal abnormalities, as fluorine is important for bone development and strength.

Florid toxicity, on the other hand, happens when there is an excessive intake of fluorine. This can occur through drinking water with high fluorine levels or excessive use of fluoride-containing products. Florid toxicity can cause dental fluorosis, which is characterized by discoloration and pitting of the teeth. It can also lead to skeletal fluorosis, a condition where fluorine accumulates in the bones, causing pain, stiffness, and joint problems.

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18

How can we get the most vitamins in the food we eat

  1. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables: Different fruits and vegetables contain different vitamins, so aim to include a wide range of colors and types in your diet.

  2. Opt for fresh and whole foods: Processing and cooking can reduce vitamin content, so choose fresh foods whenever possible. If cooking, use methods like steaming or microwaving to retain more nutrients.

  3. Store and handle food properly: Vitamins can be lost through improper storage and handling. Keep fruits and vegetables refrigerated, and minimize exposure to light and air.

  4. Consider eating raw or lightly cooked foods: Some vitamins are heat-sensitive, so consuming raw or lightly cooked foods can help preserve their nutrient content.

  5. Avoid overcooking and excessive processing: Prolonged cooking and excessive processing can lead to nutrient loss. Try to cook foods for shorter durations and avoid heavily processed foods.

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19

How to preserve the vitamin content in food

it is important to minimize exposure to heat, light, and air. Here are some tips:

  1. Store fruits and vegetables in a cool, dark place or in the refrigerator to slow down vitamin degradation.

  2. Cook food using methods that require minimal water and shorter cooking times, such as steaming or stir-frying.

  3. Avoid overcooking vegetables, as this can lead to nutrient loss.

  4. Preserve the nutrient content of fruits and vegetables by freezing them.

  5. Keep food properly sealed to prevent exposure to air, which can cause vitamin oxidation.

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20

What sources can receive calcium

Kidney retention

gut absorption

bones

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21

Parathyroid galnd

Parathyroid glands monitor blood calcium level

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