Psychology Exam 3 (5,13,11)

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Gender

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56 Terms

1

Gender

Psychological characteristics

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2

Sex

Biological predisposition, genetics

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3

Sex Chromosomes

XX- female XY- male

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4

Primary Sex Chromosomes

Organs that are responsible for sexual reproduction

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5

Secondary Sex Chromosomes

Visible traits that society often uses to determine a person's biological sex. Typically appears at puberty.

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6

Intersex

A person who has both parts

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7

Menarche

Term typically used to explain that a woman has started her menstruation.

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8

Sexual Orientation

The degree of emotion and sexual attraction to a specific sexual category

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9

Asexual

Having no sexual attraction to others

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10

Transgender

Birth sex is not how they view themselves

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11

Sexual Scripts

Stereotype that men should propose not the other way around.

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12

Quid Pro Quo

Sexual harassment where workers are "rewarded" for sexual behaviors at work Ex) professor asks student on a date for a better grade

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13

Refactory Period

Men have to wait after sex while women don't

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14

Rape Myths

A statement that places the blame on the survivor or minimizes how serious rape is.

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15

Biological Determinism

The idea that males and females are born different. This argument states our biology makes men and women different.

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16

Differential Socialization

The argument that men and women are taught to act differently

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17

Personality

An individual's unique long-term pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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18

Introverts

A shy, reticent person

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19

Extrovert

An outgoing, overtly expressive person

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20

Self-Esteem

How much you value, respect, and feel confident about yourself

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21

Cardinal Traits

Traits around which a person organizes his or her life Ex) Abraham Lincoln and honesty

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22

Factor Analysis

Statistical procedure that lumps multiple questions together that fit together in one simple dimension.

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23

Five-Factor Model

Reducing all character traits down to five major characteristics

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24

Agreeableness

People that are friendly, nurturing, and caring

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25

Conscientious

These people are highly motivated, disciplined, and responsible

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26

Neuroticism

People that rank high on this dimension tend to have antisocial characteristics

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27

Openness to Exleriences

People like to try new ideas

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28

Self-Disclosure

Voluntary sharing of information about the self that another person is not likely to know. Can effect how others view you

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29

Narcissism

Selfishness, involving a sense of entitlement, a lack of empathy

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30

Peer Nominations

the most common measurement in childhood social experiments. Ex) "Who is the meanest person in your class"

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31

Health Psychology

A "reorientation" towards the positive aspect of the human lifespan.

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32

Behavioral Medicine

The focus is to guide the patients to a healthier lifestyle

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33

Lifestyle Diseases

Diseases that occur to personal habits that cause health problems. Ex) heart disease, stroke, HIV/AIDS, lung cancer, obisity

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34

Two most common behaviors related to lifestyle diseases in the U.S.

Smoking and overweight

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35

Refusal Skills Training

Program that teaches youths how to say "no" under specific circumstances

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36

Life Skills Training

Teaching how to deal effectively with the demands of everyday life

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37

Stress

An evolved adaptation that allows us to respond to changes in our environment.

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38

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

How the body automatically responds to long-term stress. Consists of three stages

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39

First Stage of GAS

Alarm reaction

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40

Second Stage of GAS

Resistance stage

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41

Third Stage of GAS

Exhaustion stage

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42

Psychoneuroimmunology

Psychology + Neuroscience + Immunology. The study of how the brain responds to stress by influencing the immune system

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43

Caregiver's Burden

Research shows that family members caring for Alzheimer's patients sometimes die before the person with Alzheimer's!

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44

Emotion-Focused Coping

Trying to deal with stress by controlling our emotions related to the stress.

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45

Problem-Focused Coping

Deals with attempting to remove the source of stress

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46

Fight-or-Flight

Biological response to stress where us unconsciously determine if we should fight or run.

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47

Tend-and-Befriend

Preventative approach to danger where you take care of your children/friends and increasing your social network for protection.

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48

Traumatic Stress

Stress that occurs due to extreme situations Ex) war, abuse, wrecks

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49

Comorbidity

The co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual

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50

Rumination

This is the lack of activity and focus on negative thoughts, behaviors, and memories

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51

Requirement to Diagnose a Depressive Episode

Sadness, frustration, hopelessness, disturbance of sleep, appetite change, problems focusing, lack of energy

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52

Are masculine or feminine people more likely to report depression? Why?

Girls are twice as likely to report depressive symptoms.

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53

Protection Effect

An argument that marriage tends to improve physical health

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54

Protection Statment

Marriage provides emotional and financial support which helps improve health

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55

Selection Effect

An argument that marriage does not actually improve health

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56

Selection Statment

Healthy people marry other health people

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