Chapter 6: Sleep

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Wakefulness

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53 Terms

1

Wakefulness

________ is maintained by systems in the upper brainstem and hypothalamus.

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2

Insomnia

________: the most common sleep disorder where individuals have trouble falling asleep.

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3

Motor cortex neurons

________ fire as rapidly during REM sleep as during waking movement.

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4

Cataplexy

________: loss of muscle tone similar to what happens in REM sleep but occurs when the individual is still awake.

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5

Electroencephalography

________ (EEG): the measurement of electrical activity in different parts of the brain and the recording of such activity as a visual trace (on paper or on an oscilloscope screen)

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6

homeostatic system

The ________ responds to longer wake periods by increasing the urge to sleep.

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7

Locus coeruleus

________: a lateral part of brain stem that has norepinephrine producing neurons that mediate arousal along with orexin.

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8

suprachiasmatic nucleus

The ________ also receives input from the retina.

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9

slow wave

Sleeping drugs do not help because they suppress ________ sleep and arent effective in keeping people asleep.

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10

Internal activation

________ comes from the cyclically active REM sleep generator neurons in the brainstem.

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11

outside day night

The clock can be reset by light so it is linked to the ________ cycle.

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12

Periodic Limb Movements

________: intermittent jerks of the legs or arms that occur as individual enters slow wave sleep and cause arousal from sleep.

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13

Hypnagogic hallucination

________: individuals tend to enter REM sleep very quickly and enter dreaming state while partially awake.

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14

Ventrolateral preoptic

________ (VLPO) nucleus: area in the brain that causes suppression of arousal systems.

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15

Signals

________ from neurons cause the excitation of the forebrain.

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16

Narcolepsy

________ is caused by the loss of nerve cells in the lateral hypothalamus that contain orexin or hypocretin.

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17

Neurons

________ in the hypothalamus use orexin and some contain histamine.

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18

REM sleep

In ________, there is an internally activated brain and EEG but the external input is suppressed.

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19

Sleep

________ is made of several different stages that are accompanied by daily rhythms in hormones, body temperature, etc.

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20

Sleep disorders

________ are one of the least recognized sources of disease, disability, and death.

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21

REM

________ (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep: sleep characterized by the random rapid movement of the eyes when derams also occur.

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22

Adenosine

________: a very important sleep promotor.

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23

circadian system

The ________ is regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

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24

clock proteins

It expresses ________ that go through a biochemical cycle of approximately 24 hrs.

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25

Atonia

The paralysis of muscle.

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26

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

________: airway muscles relax and close airway causing difficulty breathing.

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27

adenosine levels

Increased ________ slow down cellular activity and diminish arousal.

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28

Orexin

________: an excitatory signal to arousal system especially norepinephrine neurons.

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29

Adenosine release

________ starts in the basal forebrain and spreads to the rest of the cortex.

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30

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

________: a small group of cells in the hypothalamus serving as the master clock.

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31

Narcolepsy

________: mechanisms controlling transitions into sleep (particularly REM sleep) dont work.

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32

REM Behavior Disorder

Occurs when muscles fail to become paralyzed during REM sleep.

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33

Circadian system

________: Monitoring the time of day /night.

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34

REM sleep

Dreaming occurs only in ________.

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35

Electroencephalography (EEG)

The measurement of electrical activity in different parts of the brain and the recording of such activity as a visual trace (on paper or on an oscilloscope screen)

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36

NREM (Non-Rapid Eye Movement) sleep

Sleep where the eyes do not rapidly move

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37

REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep

Sleep is characterized by the random rapid movement of the eyes when dreams also occur

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38

Over the course of ones lifetime

slow-wave sleep time decreases & REM time increases

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39

Infants

up to 18 hrs

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40

Older adults

6-7 hrs

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41

Insomnia

The most common sleep disorder where individuals have trouble falling asleep

New cards
42

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

A condition where the airway muscles relax and close the airway causing difficulty breathing.

New cards
43

Periodic Limb Movements

Intermittent jerks of the legs or arms that occur as the individual enters slow wave sleep and cause arousal from sleep.

New cards
44

Narcolepsy

A disorder where mechanisms controlling transitions into sleep (particularly REM sleep) don't work

New cards
45

Hypnagogic hallucination

Individuals tend to enter REM sleep very quickly and enter a dreaming state while partially awake.

New cards
46

Cataplexy

The loss of muscle tone similar to what happens in REM sleep but occurs when the individual is still awake.

New cards
47

Ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO) nucleus

An area in the brain that causes the suppression of arousal systems.

New cards
48

Circadian system

A body system monitoring the time of day or night.

New cards
49

Homeostatic system

A body system monitoring how long the person is awake.

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50

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

A small group of cells in the hypothalamus serving as the master clock.

New cards
51

Orexin

An excitatory signal to the arousal system, especially for norepinephrine neurons.

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52

Locus coeruleus

A lateral part of the brain stem that has norepinephrine-producing neurons that mediate arousal along with orexin.

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53

Adenosine

A very important sleep promoting molecule.

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