Honors World History Midterm

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5 Themes of Geography

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5 Themes of Geography

Location, Human, Region, Place, and Movement

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Location

Absolute: Definite reference for locating a place Relative: Describes through its connection to other places or environment

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Human

How humans adapt to the environment

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Region

Area with common features

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Place

Physical characteristics of a location

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Movement

The travel of ideas, goods, resources, etc.

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Equator

Imaginary line around the middle of the latitude lines on Earth

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Latitude

x-axis of Earth; Runs east to west

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Longitude

y-axis of Earth; Runs north to south

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Prime Meridian

Imaginary line around the middle of the longitude lines on Earth

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Hemisphere

Divided areas by the equator and prime meridian (North and South) (East and West)

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Types of Maps

Political, Physical, Climate, Economic, Topographic, and Road

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Political Map

Shows the territorial boundaries of countries, states, and other administrative divisions

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Physical Map

Graphical representation of physical landmarks

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Climate Map

Shows the geographic distribution of climates through zones.

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Economic Map

Regions architecture, manufacturing, etc.

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Topographic Map

Detailed drawing of acurate features to the area

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Road Map

Map for drivers showing roads of an area

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B.C

Before Christ

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A.D

Anno Domini (Year of the Lord)

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Decade

A period of 10 years

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Century

A period of 100 years

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Millennium

A period of 1000 years

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Age/Era

A period of 100,000,000 year

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Small Communities in Afro-Eurasia

Governed by elders related by ancestry

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Chieftancy in Afro-Eurasia

In which an individual has the power to make decisions over a community

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Kingdoms in Afro-Eurasia

Highly established bureaucracy that is generally tied to religion

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City States in Afro-Eurasia

Focused on trade; often ruled by merchants

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Confederation

Alliances of several states

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Empires

Core community with state conquering power; Rules over others

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State

Country

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State's job

Makes laws, dispenses justice, claims control of territories, and collects resources

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Where did the largest of Afro-Eurasian states stretch?

Along the fertile belt of land

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What was the heart of Afro-Eurasian States?

The Islamic World

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What was the first migration to the Caribbean islands?

Pre-Colonial Caribbean

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What year were the Caribbean islands first settled?

5000 BCE

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Where did the people migrate from to the Caribbean islands in 5000BCE?

The mainland in Central America

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How did belief systems change from early migrations to later migrations?

During early migrations belief systems were very similar and had little diversity. During later migrations belief systems changed to diverse, ancestral beliefs that were full of idols and traditions

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What was traded between the Caribbean islands in the Pre-Colonial Caribbean?

Jade, Ceramics, Teeth, Shells, etc.

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What happened to the natives of the Caribbean when Spain took over?

They were used as guides, translators, and slaves

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What was the encomienda system?

It was a spanish legal system that allowed colonizers to control the indigenous labor force

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How did the indigenous people resist spanish control?

By migrating and moving location

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What effect did colonial interaction have on the world?

It connected continents and exchanged resources and diseases

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What five nations made up the Haudenosaunee?

Seneca, Cayuga, Onodaga, Onedia, and Mohauk

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What type of community was the Haudenosaunee?

They were a confederacy

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What held up all five nations that made up the Haudenosaunee?

They were held up by a matriarchal hierarchy with a mens council

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What did the Aztecs believe in?

They belived in crops, weapons, and the quetzacoatl

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Where did the Aztecs settle?

Mexico

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In what year did the Aztecs build Tenochtitlan?

In 1325

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Why did the Aztecs build pyramids?

For human sacrifice

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Why did the Aztecs sacrifice people?

The 52 year cycle; was the belief that human sacrifice would stop the apocolypse

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What type of empire were the Aztecs?

Polytheistic Tribute Empire

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Where did the Mayans settle?

Yucatan

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What belief did the Aztecs and Maya have in common?

The belief in the quetzacoatl

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What things were the Mayans make?

They made mesoamerican style pyramids, ball courts, etc.

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Who did the Mayans trade with?

The Caribbean

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How did the Mayan empire end?

It was left abandoned

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What year was the Mayan empire left abandoned?

1450

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What empire was the most successful in the Americas?

The Incas

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Who ruled the Inca empire?

Sapa Inca

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How did the Inca empire expand?

Through military power

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What did the Inca empire trade?

Cotton, potatoes, maize, alpacas, pottery, wool, tapestries, etc.

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What other successful empire did the Inca empire surpass technologically?

The Roman Empire

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What Inca festival celebrated the sun?

Inti Raymi

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Where were the Aztec, Inca, and Mayan empires?

The Americas

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What are chieftancies, confederations, and empires all examples of?

Organized communities

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What major political development did the Haudenosaunee make?

The coming together of five nations in North America, forming a confederation

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Mislims, Buddhists, and Hindus were all present in South Asian populations? How would those populations be described?

Religiously pluralistic

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What was the main reason for the Aztecs wanting to expand and conquer new places?

The fear of an apocalypse, and the belief that it could be prevented by providing humans and food as sacrifice

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According to the Qur'an and the teachings of the prophet Muhammad, Islam is a continuation of which two religions?

Judaism and Christianity

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Which belief systems were primarily associated with China int eh thirteenth century?

Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism

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What region in the Americas had numerous networks connecting communities that were spread accoss 7,000 islands?

The Caribbean

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What was the Mongol policy about religious freedom?

The Mongols were tolerant of different religions

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How did the Aztec empire form?

Several independent city states in the region came together through alliance and conquest

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What is a tributary empire?

An empire where surrounding states pay tribute to the empire to maintain their alliance

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What were the most important sources of Islamic history for Muslims?

The Qur'an and The Hadith

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What paved the way for Indian Ocean routes of exchange?

Muslim merchants

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What cause expanded exchange in the Indian Ocean?

The spread of Islam, demand for specialized products, advances in maritime technology, etc.

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What specialized products did India produce?

Cotton, fabric, rugs, etc.

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What specialized products did Malaysia produce?

Spices (nutmeg, cloves,etc.)

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What specialized products did Swahili produce?

Enslaved people

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What specialized products did China produce?

Silk and procelain

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Where did the enslaved people from East Africa go?

North Africa, the Middle East, and Madagascar

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Where did the enslaved people from West Africa go?

America

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What do you need to know about weather when traveling the Indian Ocean?

Monsoon wind patterns

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What is a lateen?

Triangular sails

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What is a stern/rudder used for?

Stability

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What is an astrolabe used for?

To find your distance from the equator

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What helped with the growth of states?

Trade, application of revenue, and using taxes to maintain trading posts

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What did merchants need to do to expand trade?

Travel

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What was a way that Islam spread?

Intermarriage

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What did the Muslim merchant community produce?

Silk, paper, porcelain, etc.

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What did the Chinese merchant community produce?

Cotton, tea, silk, opium, etc.

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What did the Sogdian merchant community produce?

Silk, gold, wine, etc.

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What did the Jewish merchant community produce?

Glass beads, dyes, spices, etc.

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What did the Malay merchant community produce?

Nutmeg, pepper, etc.

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How did communities respond to increased demand?

Finding now ways to make products more efficiently and increase of the government's role in trade.

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What significant cultural transfers were made?

The transfer of knowledge, culture, technology, commerce, and religion.

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When was Oceania first inhabited?

40,000 years ago

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How was Oceania pioneered?

Through seafaring

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