# Stats sampling quiz vocab

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Population

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## Description and Tags

### 44 Terms

1

Population

Complete set group of individuals/items with a common study of interest for a statistical study

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2

Sample (Representative)

Small, manageable number of subjects that represent a larger population

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3

Parameter

Numerical summary of a population; used to describe the entire population being studied.

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4

Statistics

Numbers that summarize, gather, and decide data from a sample

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5

Census

complete count of the people living in a country with their info: (job/age/gender)

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6

Simple Random Sampling

Every member of the population has a known and equal chance of being chosen at random: (names out of hat)

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7

Stratified Random Sampling

Divide the population into groups by shared characteristic and randomly select from each: (age, occupation, gender)

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8

Cluster Sample

Divide population into clusters and whole cluster gets picked for sample; must be HETEROGENOUS/DISTINCT

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9

Systematic Sampling

Select samples in numbered intervals: (every 4th person, 1st person does not count)

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10

Convenience Sampling

Choose who/what is easiest to reach for sample

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11

Voluntary Response Sample

Only those who want to participate for sample

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12

Multistage Sampling

Uses multiple sampling methods subsequently; must be different to be considered multistage

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13

Bias

Systematic tendency to affect particular outcomes over another; can only be reduced, not eliminated

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14

Voluntary Response Bias

Participate when they want to = over/under representation; usually surveys

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15

Undercoverage

When some participants are left out/not enough people in sample = under representation

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16

Non-Response Bias

Chosen individuals cannot be reached, or do not want to respond; we need different perspectives = under representation

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17

Response Bias

People LIE due to sensitive/confusing topics = under representation

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18

Random Sampling

Best method to reduce bias

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19

Observational Study

Observe individuals w/o manipulation/intervention

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20

Experiment

a test under controlled conditions made to demonstrate a known truth or validate a hypothesis ; develop direct CAUSE & EFFECT relationship

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21

Response Variable

Dependent variable ( y )

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22

Explanatory Variable

Independent variable ( x )

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23

Experimental unit

Person/object assigned randomly to a treatment

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24

Factor

Variables controlled during experiments to determine their effects on response variables

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25

Treatment

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26

Level

Amount/magnitude of treatment given; treatment w/ more than 1 factor applied

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27

Treatment Group

Group receiving treatment

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28

Control

CONSTANT experimental factor; effects do NOT change with treated participants

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29

Control group

Group that does NOT receive any treatment

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30

Single Blind

Participants unaware of whether they received treatments

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31

Double Blind

Participant AND researchers do not know who received treatment

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32

Placebo

Appears as an active treatment = 0/NO treatment and is FAKE

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33

Placebo Effect

Effects seen in people receiving no treatment

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34

Confounding Variable

3rd variable influences both x & y variables; effect on dependent/response/y-variable cannot be distinguished from more than 1 x variables

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35

Lurking Variable

Unknown variable that is not controlled for; usually in independent/explanatory/x-variable & observational study

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36

Survey

Set of ?s to gather specific data from population samples

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37

Randomization

Randomize into specific treatments to reduce differences and favoring one experimental condition over another

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38

Blocking

Group similar participants to reduce bias between groups

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39

Replication

Repeating experiments w/ similar characteristics for similar results

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40

Experimental Units (Subjects)

Performed on people, items, things; Humans = samples/subjects

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41

Response Variable

Dependent/y-variable to be measured

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42

Explanatory Variable (Factor)

independent/x-variable that can be controlled, manipulated, changed

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43

Treatment

Manipulation (or experimental condition) implemented by the experimenter

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44

Blinding

Subjects/Researchers do NOT know what treatments are assigned to which experimental unit (subjects)

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