Science exam Year 8

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Respiration definition

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61 Terms
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Respiration definition

the action of breathing

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Photosynthesis definition

The process by which plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to create oxygen and energy in the form of sugar.

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Digestion definition

the breaking down of food into small molecules which are then absorbed into the body

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Peristalsis definition

Peristalsis is a series of wave-like muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract

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Reproduction definition

The process of an organism generates and offspring to continue the existence of the species

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asexual reproduction

reproduction from solely a single organism

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Sexual reproduction

reproduction using the union of male and female reproductive cells (gametes)

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Fertilisation definition

the process of fusion of the female gamete, the ovum or egg and the male gamete produced in the pollen tube by the pollen grain.

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Pollination definition

The process of getting pollen from the anther to the stigma

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Gamete definition

A gamete is a reproductive cell of an animal or plant

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sperm cell

the male reproductive cell; the male gamete

structure: the tail, which propels the sperm to the egg and helps it to burrow through the egg coat function: to enable sexual reproduction through its union with the female egg during fertilization

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egg cell

the female reproductive cell, or gamete

structure: function: connect with the male sperm cell in order to become fertilised and produce offspring

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Red blood cell

carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. have a flat disk shaper, which creates increased surface area to carry more oxygen

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white blood cell

function: detect and deal with infections or foreign molecules that enter your body structure:

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muscle cell

structure: Each strand is made up of sub-units called "sarcomeres." These sarcomeres contain the "contraction proteins” called actin and myosin function: Their predominant function is contractibility. Muscles, attached to bones or internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement

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nerve cell

The basic unit of communication in the nervous system structure: one elongated extension (axon) for sending impulses and usually many branches (dendrites) function: receiving impulses

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gaurd cell

structure: regulating the opening and closure of stomatal pores function: airs of epidermal cells that control gas diffusion by regulating the opening and closure of stomatal pores

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trachea function

To carry air in and out of your lungs

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Bronchi function

Your bronchi carry air to and from your lungs

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Alveoli function

The alveoli are where the lungs and the blood exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide during the process of breathing in and breathing out

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Summary Gas exchange

Oxygen moves from the lungs to the bloodstream. At the same time carbon dioxide passes from the blood to the lungs.

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Stamen

The male reproductive part of the flower (anther and filament)

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Sepal

protects the bud

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Stigma

receives the pollen from the visiting pollinators

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Filament

supports the anther

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style

leads the pollen down to the ovary

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pistil

The female reproductive part of the flower (stigma and style, ovary)

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petal

Bright and colourful to attract pollinators

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ovary

to prepare ovules for fertilization

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Anther

Creates pollen

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cell

A basic unit of structure and function in an organism.

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tissue

A group of cells that work together to perform a task.

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organ

Two or more tissues working together to perform a task.

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organ system

Organ that work together to perform a task.

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Organism

a living thing

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nucleus

The command center of cells. it contains our chromosomes and genetic information needed for the reproduction of life. (DNA)

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Endoplasmic reticulum

Works closely with ribosomes to produce and deliver important cell products.

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cell membrane

a very thin layer, composed of lipids and protein, that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and controls the passage of substance into and out of the cell

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mitochondria

The powerhouse of the cell - it takes the food we eat and converts it to energy for cell activities.

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organelles

specialised structured within a living cell.

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vacuoles

Used to store different substances. Are larger in plants than animals

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ribosomes

makes proteins

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Golgi bodies

packages products to deliver to the cell.

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Nuclear membrane

surrounds and protects the nucleus

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Nucleolus

it is responsible for making ribosomes and it is found inside the nucleus

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cell wall

The outermost layer of cells in plants, that gives shape to thee cell and protects it from infections.

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cytoplasm

The jellylike material that makes up much of a cell inside the cell membrane

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cytosol

Used to describe the liquid within Cytoplasm and all the organelles suspended within it.

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chloroplast

contains pigment (chlorophyll) that allows the plant to photosynthesise

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difference between a plant and animal cell

Plant cells

  • have a cell wall,

  • contain chlorophyll

  • have large vacuoles

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levels of organisation

cell -> tissue -> organ -> organ system -> organism

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digestive system function

A group of organs which work together to covert food into energy

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digestive system order

mouth -> oesophagus -> stomach -> small intestine -> large intestine -> rectum -> anus (gum to bum)

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The respiratory system function

allows us to breath they bring oxygen into our bodies and send carbon dioxide out

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Respiratory system order

Nasal passage -> larynx -> trachea -> bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveoli

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why does the oesophagus work upside down

the muscles in our esophagus constrict and relax, which is called peristalsis and pushes food along the esophagus and into the stomach

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Circulatory system function

The circulatory system is made up of blood vessels that carry blood away from and towards the heart.

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Diaphragm function

Upon inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and flattens and the chest cavity enlarges. This contraction creates a vacuum, which pulls air into the lungs.

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Reproduction system function

To generate offspring's to continue the existence of a species

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Physical and chemical digesetion

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Cell theory

  1. All organisms are made of cells.

  2. All existing cells are produced by other living cells.

  3. The cell is the most basic unit of life.

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