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1

Architecture

The art and science of designing and constructing buildings

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utilitas,firmitas,venustas

three requirement of architecture

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Point Line Plane Volume

Primary Elements

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Point

A location in space.

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Line

A point extended is a critical element in the formation of any visual construction

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Straight Line

is sturdy. it is masculine & belongs to architecture with a determined mission to fulfill.

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Vertical line

expresses the spirit of the gothic

it is proud & exalted

it is inspiration -can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity, symbolize the human condition, or mark a position in space

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Diagonal line

symbolizes the flight of geese

it is vigorous or even angry, it is action.

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Curved Line

is more subtle than the straight. It is more graceful & sensitive. It is feminine & represents that architecture which caters to the emotional rather than the physical.

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oblique line

may be seen as a vertical line falling or a horizontal line rising

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Vertical elements

have been used throughout history to commemorate significant events and establish particular points in space

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Vertical linear elements

can also define a transparent volume of space, as in the example above, the four minarets outline a spatial field which the dome of Hagia Sophia rises in splendor

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Plane

A line extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction Conceptually has length and width but no depth

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Overhead Plane

can be either the roof plane that shelters the interior spaces of a building from the climatic elements, or the ceiling that forms the upper enclosing surface of the room.

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Wall Plane

is active in our normal field of vision and vital to the shaping and enclosure of architectural space.

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Base Plane

can either be ground plane that serves as the physical foundation and visual base for building forms, or the floor plane that forms the lower enclosing surface of a room upon which we walk.

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Volume

a plane extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a volume

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circle

a series of points arranged equally and balanced about a point

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triangle

a plane bounded by three sides, and having three angles

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square

a plane figure having four equal sides and four right angles

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Platonic Solids

primary shapes can be extended or rotated to generate volumes whose forms are distinct, regular and easily recognizable.

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Texture

quality of surface treatment usually associated with materials either rough or smooth, etc.

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Tone

light & shade caused by openings, projections, etc

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Form

is the primary identifying characteristic of a volume, It is determined by the shape and interrelationships of the planes that describe the boundaries of the volume.

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Shape

The principal identifying characteristic of form,

results from the specific configuration of a form's surface and edges.

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Size

The real dimensions of form, its length, width and depth while these dimension determine the proportions of a from, its scale is determined by its ___ relative to other forms in its context.

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Color

The hue, intensity and total value of form's surface

is the attribute that most clearly distinguishes a form from its environment. It also affects the visual weight of a form.

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Position

A form's location relative to its environment or visual field.

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Orientation

A form's position relative to the ground plane, the compass points or to the person viewing the form.

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Visual Inertia

the degree of concentration and stability of a form, it ______ form depends on its geometry as well as its orientation relative to the ground plane and our line of sight.

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Dimensional Transformation

a form can be transformed into one or more of its dimensions and still retain its family identify.

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Subtractive Transformation

a form can be transformed by subtracting a portion of its volume.

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Additive Transformation

a form can be transformed by the addition of element to its volume.

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Centralized forms

consists of number of secondary forms clustered about dominant, central, or parent form.

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Linear forms

consist of forms arranged sequentially in a row.

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Radial forms

are compositions of linear forms that extend out from a central form in a radial manner.

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Clustered forms

consist of forms that are grouped together by proximity or the sharing of a common visual trait.

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Grid forms

are modular forms whose relationships are regulated by three- dimensional grids.

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Articulation of form

This refer to the manner in which the surface of a form come together to define its shape and volume.

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proportion

is largely a matter of relationships. It is evident by a comparison, which the eye makes between the size, shape and tone of the various objects or parts of a composition.

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Relative proportion Absolute proportion

Types of proportion:

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Relative proportion

parts of the object as it is

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Absolute proportion

parts of the object or the whole to the various parts

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The Golden Section

ratio which provided a visually pleasing appearance in art & architecture

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Le Modulor

A proportioning system developed by the French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier

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Scale

Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.

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Circulation

movement through space Can be conceived as the perceptual thread that links the exterior/interior spaces of a structure

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Balance

It is the foundation upon which arrangement, harmony and adjustment of weights, tones, values, etc. are developed.

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symmetrical

The easiest and simplest kind of balance is the purely symmetrical type in which the elements are arranged in precisely the same manner on either side of a central axis or line.

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Formal Balance

is a type of balance which approach absolute symmetry but which lacks some of the essentials of this kind of composition.

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unsymmetrical

A more subtle and elusive and is more difficult to attain.It attempts to satisfy the eye without any effort to place equal masses at similar distances from the center of the composition.

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Elevation

Space displaced by the mass of a building

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Floor Plan

Space defined by wall, floor and ceiling

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Architecture

Latin: architectura, from the Greek άρχιτέκτων arkhitekton

Chief builder/carpenter/mason

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Linear Elements

Express movement across space

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Linear members

form a three-dimensional structural frame for architectural space

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AXIS

a regulating line established by two distant points in space and about which elements are symmetrically arranged

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VOLUME

-A plane extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a _________ \n -has three dimensions: length, width and depth

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Points or vertices

where several planes come together

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Planes or surfaces

which define the limits or boundaries of a volume

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Lines or edges

where two planes meet

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