Chapter 6 - OS

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operating system (OS)

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22 Terms

1

operating system (OS)

System software that provides an INTERFACE between the user or application program AND the computer hardware.

4 MAIN TASKS: 1) Provide user Interface. 2) Offer System Security and Protection. 3) Manage Resources Efficiently. 4) Use Resources Safely

AKA The most important software on a computer!

OS manages:

  1. the hardware

  2. the software resources (user wants resources, the OS delivers)

  3. the services computer programs want

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 1 - Operating Systems

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4 main tasks of OS

  1. Provide User Interface

  2. Offer System Security and Protection (OS acts like a security guard)

  3. Manage Resources Efficiently

  4. Use Resources Safely

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 1 - Operating Systems

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3

Why do we want an interface between the user and the hardware?

-to hide hardware details -to create a user-friendly environment -to prevent damage to system (hardware and data)

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 1 - Operating Systems

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4

What are some well-know operating systems?

Desktops/Laptops: Linux, MacOS, Windows

Mobile: Apple iOS, Google Android

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 1 - Operating Systems

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5

GUI

Graphical User Interface

User interfaces today are graphical (as users found text interface "cumbersome"). However, text based interface can be very efficient.

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 1 - Operating Systems

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6

superusers

user(s) who have more privileges (admin) than others

privileged users, usually computer center employees, with the ability to access and maintain password files

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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7

process

a program in execution

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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fundamental OS task

process management

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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running state

the process is executing instructions

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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ready state

the process is runnable (ready to run), but not running process is waiting in ready queue

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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blocked/waiting state

the process is waiting for some event to occur

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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new state

the process is being created by the OS

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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exit state

the OS is cleaning up a terminating process

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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14

time slice

process moves from RUNNING to READY occurs when process has run for a MAX length of time

exists for processes "hogging" the CPU process kicked off processor (process goes from RUNNING back to READY)

if SMALL time slice -> HUGE overhead costs (to move process from ready to running back to ready; think of OS tables that need to be updated / registers that get changed)

if LARGE time slice -> system response time is SLOW (turn around time for response gets too slow; users need to wait longer to get processor time)

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Parts 2 and 3 - Operating Systems

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ready queue

line of processes ready to run

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 2 - Operating Systems

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16

virtual memory

"virtualizes" memory/RAM locations (abstraction)

think of VM as "simulated physical memory (RAM)"

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 3 - Operating Systems

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I/O intensive process

process is often BLOCKED

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 3 - Operating Systems

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compute intensive process

process is mainly RUNNING or READY

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 3 - Operating Systems

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19

deadlock

when two or more processes are permanently blocked on each other

one way to resolve = Deadlock Prevention if process can't get everything it needs, it gets nothing

other types of deadlocks (and solutions) exist

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 3 - Operating Systems

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processor utilization

percentage of time that the processor is busy

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 3 - Operating Systems

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What does the OS provide?

  • Scheduler

  • Memory Managers (Loaders, Garbage collectors, Linkers)

  • Information Managers (File systems, Database systems)

  • Language Support (Interpreters, Compilers, Assemblers)

  • I/O manager (Keyboard, printer, network connection)

  • Utilities (Text editors, graphics routines).

Found in lecture Chapter 6 Part 1 - Operating Systems

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22

example OS commands

-Load Program -Run Program -Save info to file/directory -Retrieve previously stored file -List all files for user -Delete file -Rename file -Copy files from one I/O device to another -Print file on specified I/O device -Establish network connection -Let user set password -Let user change password -Relay memory usage -Relay data storage usage

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