Computer Programming

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Computer Programming

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47 Terms

1

Computer Programming

It means giving instruction or directions to accomplish specific task

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2

Programmers

people who write computer programs

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3

Programming Language

programmers use a specific language called _______ to communicate with the computer

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4

9000+

there are approximately ______ programming languages used by software and web developers and other professionals

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5

Compiler

converts programming language program to machine language

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6

Interpreter

converts programming languages to machine language line by line

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7

C. source code—compiler—assembler—machine code

How it works: code translator from source code to executable output
A. source code—assembler—-compiler——machine code

B. source code—machine code—compiler—-assembler

C. source code—compiler—assembler—machine code

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8

Machine Language

  • Instructions written in 0s and 1s are called _______. ___________ language (each type of machine has its own language) represent the only way to communicate directly with the computer.

  • low level languages and can directly understand by computer but difficult to ready by humans

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9

Assembly language

  • it simplify the programmer’s job by allowing the programmer to use mnemonics in place of the 0s and 1s in the program.

  • a representation of machine language. these are instructions translates to machine language instruction called assembler

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10

High level language

  • It represent the next major development in programming languages. These languages are a vast improvement over machine and assembly language because they allow the programmer to use instructions that more closely resemble the English language.

  • these are mostly used by programmers today. these are easy to read and portable. it can be classified into functional, procedure oriented, object oriented, programming and logic programming languages

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11

Step 1: Analyze the problem- problem outline and list of requirements

Step 2: Plan the algorithm- design algorithm using pseudo-code, IPO and flowcharts

Step 3: Check the algorithm- trace algorithm.

Step 4: Code the algorithm into a program- implement algorithms into code.

Step 5: maintenance: evaluate and modify the program if necessary. IPO chart is also applicable

steps in problem solving process

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12

Algorithm

step by step solution to solve a problem or to accomplish specific task

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13

Flowchart

graphical representation of algorithm. there are symbols and illustration to use

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14

Pseudo code

tool to plan the algorithm and use short English statements.

The short English statements that represent an algorithm are called _________

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15

programs

instruction given to a computer

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16

IPO chart

use to organized the result of program analysis

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17
<p>Process</p>

Process

indicates any type of internal operation inside the Processor or memory

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18
<p>input/output</p>

input/output

used for any _____/______ operation. indicates that the computer is to obtain data or output results

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19
<p>Decision</p>

Decision

used to ask a question that can be answered in a binary format (yes/no, true/false)

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20
<p>Connector</p>

Connector

Allows the flowchart to be drawn without intersecting lines or without a reverse flow.

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21
<p>Pre-defined Process</p>

Pre-defined Process

Used to invoke a subroutine or an interrupt program.

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22
<p>Terminal</p>

Terminal

Indicates the starting or ending of the program, process, or interrupt program.

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23
<p>Flow lines</p>

Flow lines

shows direction of flow

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24

Integer 4 bytes

int

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25

float 4 bytes

float

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double 8 bytes

double

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boolean 1 byte

bool

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28

character 1 byte

char

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string 1 byte per character

string

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identifiers

All C++ variables must be identified with descriptive unique names.

These unique names are called

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•Names can contain letters, digits, and underscores

•Names must begin with a letter or an underscore (_)

•Names are case sensitive (myVar and myvar are different variables)

•Names cannot contain whitespaces or special characters like !, #, %, etc.

•Reserved words (like C++ keywords, such as int) cannot be used as names

The general rules for naming variables are:

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32

==

equal to

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! =

not equal to

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34

<

less than

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<=

less than or equal to

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>

greater than

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>=

greater than or equal to

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38

true + true = true
true + false = false

false + true = false

false + false = false

&&

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39

true + true = true
true + false = true

false + true = true

false + false = false

||

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40

Sequence Structures

  • In a computer program, the _________ structure directs the computer to process program instructions, one after another, in the order listed in the programs.

  • a series of actions that is completed in a specific order. Action 1 is performed, then Action 2, then Action 3, etc,. until all of the actions in the sequence have been carried out.

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41

Selection

indicates that a decision (based on some condition) needs to be made followed by an appropriate action derived from that decision.

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42

Repetition

  • last of the three control structures. It directs the computer to repeat one or more instruction until some condition is met, at which time the computer should stop repeating the instructions. This structure also is referred to as a loop or an iteration.

  • or loops, are used when a program needs to repeatedly process one or more instructions until some condition is met, at which time the loop ends. Many programming tasks are repetitive, having little variation from one item to the next.

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43

Control Structures

All computer programs, no matter how simple or how complex, are written using one or more of three basic structures: Sequence, Selection, and Repetition. These structures are called __________ or logic structures because they control the flow of a program’s logic.

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44

while loop

The loop construct in C++ is used when the number of iterations is known beforehand is called _________

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braces

In a C++ program, the body of a function is enclosed in ______

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46

false

true && false

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true

true || false

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