AP Biology Unit 3- Cellular Energetics Vocab

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Enzyme

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Enzyme

macromolecules that catalyze (speed up) reactions by lowering the activation energy

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Substrate

the substance that is acted upon by an enzyme

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Enzyme-Substrate Complex

a substrate that is bound into the enzyme

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Active Site

an area for substrate to bind to in the enzyme

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Activation Energy

the amount of energy that is needed for a reaction to occur

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Catalyst

a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

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pH

a measure of the acidity of a solution

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Denature

destroy the characteristic properties of a protein by heat, acidity, or other effects that change its shape

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ATP

molecule that organisms use as a source of energy to perform work

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Kinetic Energy

energy associated with motion

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Potential Energy

stored energy

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Free Energy

used to determine the likelihood of reactions in organisms, or if the reactions are energetically favorable

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Exergonic Reaction

<p>reactions that release energy ΔG<0 reaction is spontaneous</p>

reactions that release energy ΔG<0 reaction is spontaneous

<p>reactions that release energy ΔG<0 reaction is spontaneous</p>
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Endergonic Reaction

<p>reactions that absorb energy ΔG&gt;0 Reaction is not spontaneous</p>

reactions that absorb energy ΔG>0 Reaction is not spontaneous

<p>reactions that absorb energy ΔG&gt;0 Reaction is not spontaneous</p>
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Catabolic Pathway

Pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds

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Anabolic Pathway

Pathways that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler compounds

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Entropy

the measure of disorder in the universe

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Energy

the ability to do work

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First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy can be transferred or transformed

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Second Law of Thermodynamics

Energy transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe

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C4 Plant

Plants that have their stomata collect and fix carbon to be delivered to the bundle sheath cells and used in photosynthesis.

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NADPH

Electron carrier molecule that is used in photosynthesis

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Stomata

pores in leaves that allow CO2 in and O2 out

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Stroma

aqueous internal fluid of the chloroplast

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Thylakoid

form stacks known as grana

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Chlorophyll

green pigment in thylakoid membranes

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Redox Reactions

reaction involving complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another

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Oxidation

loss of e-

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Pigments

molecules that are able to absorb visible light

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Photosynthesis

the conversion of light energy to chemical energy

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Photons

particles of energy that make up light

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Reduction

gain of e-

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Heterotrophs

Organisms unable to make their own food so they live off of other organisms

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Calvin Cycle

cyclic electron flow that produces G3P

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Light Reactions

Converts solar energy to chemical energy

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Chloroplast

organelle for the location of photosynthesis

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Photosystems

protein complexes found in the thylakoid membrane that contain chlorophyll to collect energy from the sun

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Mesophyll

the cells that make up the interior tissue of the leaf

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Photorespiration

On very hot days plants close their stomata to stop water loss

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G3P

a 3 carbon sugar that is produced during photosynthesis and can be turned into glucose

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CAM Plant

Open stomata at night and close during the day then carbon dioxide is incorporated into organic acids and stored in vacuoles

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Cellular Respiration

Cells harvest chemical energy stored in organic molecules and use it to generate ATP

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NAD+

Electron acceptor molecule that is used in cellular respiration. Used in Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle

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FADH+

Electron acceptor molecule that is used in cellular respiration. Used in Krebs Cycle

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Glycolysis

-Starting point of cellular respiration -Occurs in the cytosol -Splits glucose (6C) into 2 pyruvates (3C)

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Pyruvate Oxidation

If oxygen is present, the pyruvate enters the mitochondria (eukaryotic cells) where it is oxidized into acetyl-coA

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Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)

-Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix -Turns acetyl CoA into citrate -Releases CO2 -ATP synthesized -Electrons transferred to NADH and FADH2

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Chemiosmosis

H+ ions flow down their gradient through ATP synthase and produce ATP molecules

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ATP Synthase

Protein imbedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria that uses the power from chemiosmosis to produce ATP

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Anaerobic Respiration

generates ATP using an ETC in the absence of oxygen -The final electron acceptors: sulfates or nitrates

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Fermentation

generates ATP without an ETC or oxygen. It is an extension of glycolysis.

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Autotroph

Organisms that produce their own food (organic molecules) from simple substances in their surroundings

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