Positioning Unit 1

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radiographer/technologist

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89 Terms

1

radiographer/technologist

the maker of radiographs

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2

radiologist

MD specifically trained in interpreting and performing radiographic studies; diagnoses the images

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3

radiologist assistant

technologist with specialty training in performing an advanced role in specific radiographic studies; masters level education

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4

lead markers

the correct, legal way to document x-rays; placed directly on image receptor

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5

soft markers

added after image is made, not an equal alternative to lead markers; potential to mismark correct side

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6

image receptor (IR)

object recording the x-rays to help create images

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7

types of image receptors

film, CR cassette, DR receptor, fluoroscopy image intensifier

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8

film receptor

x-rays cause an effect on a piece of film that is then run through a processor to produce the image; film must be replaced to capture a new image

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9

CR (computed tomography) cassette

x-rays cause an effect on a screen inside a cassette which is scanned to produce a digital image; no film to replace, ready to reuse after scanning

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10

DR (direct/digital radiography) receptor

x-rays cause an effect on a screen inside a cassette which is automatically converted into a digital image; IR is connected to a control panel monitor, where the image is immediately available; DR receptors can be built into table or stand, or can be portable

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11

image intensifier (II)

used in fluoroscopy and viewed on a monitor; can be videos, still images, or runs (rapid stills)

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12

image archives

where images are stored

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13

PACS

electronic image archive system, used for storage, retrieval, and distribution; stands for Picture Archiving & Communications System

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14

radiation protection standard

As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA); keep radiation exposure as low as possible while still providing good diagnostic images

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15

lead aprons

protect tech from radiation scattering off of patients; protect radiation-sensitive parts on patients

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16

which radiation-sensitive parts have shields?

gonads, thyroid, breasts

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17

dosimetry badges

worn on collar to monitor occupational exposure (on outside of aprons)

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18

3 cardinal rules of radiation protection

time, distance, shielding

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19

anatomical position

upright, facing observer, palms and feet forward; standard position; all references are as if patient is in anatomical position

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20

anterior (ventral)

to/toward the front half of patient

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21

posterior (dorsal)

to/toward the back half of the patient

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22

superior

above/higher (used for trunk of body)

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23

inferior

below/lower (used for trunk of body)

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24

proximal

closer to the root of the limb (where it attaches to the trunk of the body)

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25

distal

further from the root of a limb (where it attaches to the trunk of the body)

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26

what are the preferred terms for extremities?

proximal/distal

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27

internal

toward the center/inward

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28

external

away from the center/outward

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29

what movements can have interchangeable terms?

medial/internal, lateral/external

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30

what terms are used for relativity?

anterior-posterior, superior-inferior, medial-lateral, proximal-distal

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31

cephalad

direction of the head (toward the head)

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32

caudad

direction of the feet (toward the feet)

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33

superficial

nearer the skin surface

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34

deep

farther away from the surface

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35

interior

inside or nearer to the center

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36

exterior

situated on or near the outside

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37

plantar

refers to the sole (bottom) of the foot

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38

dorsum

refers to the top of the foot or the back of the hand

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39

palmar

refers to the palm of the hand

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40

recumbent

lying down in ANY position

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41

supine

lying on the back

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42

prone

lying face down

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43

lateral

lying on side; name of position (L/R) is the side closest to IR

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44

oblique

a position that is neither a straight-on AP/PA, prone/supine, or lateral-intentional rotation; named for the surfaces in contact with the IR

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45

Trendelenburg

recumbent with head lower than feet

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46

Fowler’s position

recumbent with head higher than feet

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47

semi-Fowler’s

not as head-up as Fowler’s

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48

Sim’s position

recumbent, LAO/oblique on left anterior side, right knee flexed; used for enema tip insertion

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49

lithotomy position

recumbent (supine), knees and hips flexed, thighs abducted and rotated externally

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50

PA

Posterior → Anterior; central ray (CR) enters the posterior and exits the anterior

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51

AP

Anterior → Posterior; CR enters the anterior and exits the posterior

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52

mediolateral

CR enters medial side and exits lateral side

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53

lateromedial

CR enters lateral side and exits medial side

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54

axial projection

angled CR; cephalic or caudal

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55

tangential projection

CR skims the surface of desired anatomy

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56

rotation of extremity from anatomic position

medial/internal rotation, lateral/external rotation

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57

supination

rolling the hand toward palm forward/up

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58

pronation

rolling the hand toward palm back/down

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59

adduction

move together

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60

abduction

move apart

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61

flexion

bending

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62

extension

stretching

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63

dorsiflexion

toes up

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64

plantarflexion

toes down (pointed)

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65

eversion

foot rolled outward

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66

inversion

foot rolled inward; “rolling the ankle”

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67

planes

hypothetical 2D surface that passes through the body

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68

sagittal plane

plane dividing the body into left and right parts

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69

midsagittal plane

plane dividing the body into EQUAL left and right parts/halves

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70

coronal plane

plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts

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71

midcoronal plane

plane midway between anterior and posterior surfaces

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72

axial/transverse plane

plane dividing the body into superior and inferior parts

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73

kVp

kilovoltage peak

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74

low kVp

high contrast (image is very black and white)

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75

high kVp

low contrast (image has more shades of gray)

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76

mAs

milliamperage seconds

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77

automatic exposure control (AEC)/phototimer

only on Buckys; photocells in table/upright that stop exposure when enough x-rays have penetrated the patient; controls the TIME of exposure

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78

photocells

cells can be turned on/off, cells measure appropriate exposure through the region of interest

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79

mA

the amount of x-rays coming out of the machine at any moment; intensity/density of image; affects how long it will take to produce sufficient x-rays to make the image

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80

high mA=

shorter exposure time; less motion/blurring

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81

what controls the quantity of xrays?

mAs

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82

seconds (s)

measurement of time; more time = more x-ray photons released; usually less than a second, and frequently shown in milliseconds (ms)

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83

what will affect the amount of x-rays needed (mAs)?

the body part and patient size

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84

density

adjust the amount of exiting x-rays (photons) needed to terminate the exposure

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85

density +/-

AEC/phototimer ONLY; exposure will terminate when less or more than normal amount of x-rays reach the cells

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86

small focal spot

for details (finger, wrist, nasal bones), lower mA, lower total output, longer exposures

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87

large focal spot

for output (chest, abdomen, pelvis), large total exposure with low exposure time to minimize motion blurring; less detail compared to small focal spot

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88

SID

Source to Image Distance (x-ray tube to IR); either 40” or 72”

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89

collimation

limits size of area being exposed to only what is needed

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