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  • wealthiest and most powerful city on minoan crete

  • center of civilization

  • surrounding area fell due to invasion by myceneaen’s from the mainland (1450 - 1400)

  • destroyed sometime between 1400 and 1200

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  • 384 - 327 bc

  • star pupil of plato

  • tutored alexander iii

  • founded his own school (the lyceum)

  • overarching goal: to collect and test all availible information

    • scientific method

    • teleological doctrine

    • formal cause + form and matter

  • humans are animals that live in polis'

    • thought a polis was the best system of government

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trojan war

  • 1193 - 1184

  • paris (son of the trojan king prium) abducts helen (wife of menelaus of sparta)

  • agamemmnon (king of mycenae) assembles a group of greek states to attack

  • war fought between the myceneaen greeks and the city of troy

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  • illiad (750) and odyssey (725)

    • common stories

    • horrific violence

    • fluid authority

  • gods portrayed as a closely connected family on olympus who seldom work in unity

  • mycenaean (bronze age) and contemporary (iron age) elements

  • unknown identity

  • wrote down oral poetry

  • didactic

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  • around 700 bc

  • theogony

    • act of creation

    • primitive and tempestuous gods

  • dark depths of human psyche

  • works and days

    • phases of history

    • justice (dike) w zeus as its protector

    • dawning of a new age

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  • 630-570 bc

  • archaic greek poet from lesbos

  • wrote lyrical poetry that was to be sung with music

  • focus on sensuality

  • only one complete poem (hymn to aphrodite)

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  • 680-645 bc

  • first poet to write on his own experiences and emotions

  • described his life in a new colony

  • dropped his shield in battle, but saved his own life

    • unheard of humiliation

    • old greek values challenged by a world that values initiative andgood luck

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  • 490 bc

  • first persian war

  • persians badly outnumbered the athenians, so pheidippedes was sent to run for spartan help

    • they were in the middle of a celebration for apollo, so they came

    • one day after the battle

  • still an athenian victory

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philip ii

  • 359-336 bc

  • becomes king of macedon in 359

  • father of alexander the great

  • consolidation of macedonia in northern greece (359 - 357)

  • took part in the third sacred war (355 - 346)

  • battle of chaeroneia (338)

  • created league of corinth (337)

    • alliance w all of greece (below olympus) except sparta

  • was assassinated at a macedonian royal wedding in 336

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  • 470 - 399 bc

  • dialectic method

  • no notes or writings

  • wisest man ever according to the oracle

  • ethics: virtue and knowledge

  • trial and execution by hemlock (399)

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  • community of several villages with the goal of self-sufficiency

  • formation during 9th or 8th century

  • unification of several pre-existing villages

  • urban center w agricultural territory

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dorian invasions

  • 1200 - 800 bc

  • explanation for the end of mycenaean culture

  • destruction of all palace except athens

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  • training/discipline

  • system of military education for youth of sparta

    • began at age seven and lasted thirteen years

  • used from 3rd century onward

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  • lowest class in spartan society

    • in bondage to spartans by 6th century

  • slaves

  • worked for spartan citizens

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  • 621/0 bc

  • first law giver

  • appointed bc of severe civil unrest due to debt

  • first written laws

    • all laws except homicide were annulled by solon

    • biased against aristocrats

    • distinguished between intent

  • lasted a generation

    • didn’t actually end civil strife

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  • 594/3 bc

  • overhauled constitution/laws

  • "shaking off of burdens"

    • canceled all existing debt

  • created four property classes based on land ownership

  • timocracy: political power based on wealth

  • new law code

  • mediator

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  • 561/0 - 528/7 bc

  • started the peisistratid tyranny

  • "good" tyrant

    • constitutional rule (but didn't actually follow the constitution bc tyranny was punishable by death)

    • followed and did not change the constitution

    • comparatively low taxes

  • coinage

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cleisthenes of athens

  • created reforms around 508/7 bc

  • birth of athenian democracy

  • tribal system

    • created ten tribes instead of four

  • council of 500

    • second council

    • annual office

    • equal representation

    • fifty members from each of the ten tribes

  • ostracism

    • voted on each year

    • essentially a ten year exile that, if broken, results in kill on sight orders

    • anti-tyranny and anti-persian measure

  • served as chief archon

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  • 484 - 425 bc

  • father of history

  • divine and human causation

    • focus on humans

  • wrote his histories (440s) to explain why persian-greek conflicts came to be

    • why the persian war happened

  • obtained info by inquiry

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linear b

  • contemporaneous w linear a but still slightly different

  • pre-greek

  • tablets (~1200 bc) show existence of olympic gods and worshipping of the majority of the later pantheon

    • burned, therefore they survived

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alexander iii (the great)

  • 336 - 323 bc

  • planned invasion and conquest of persian empire

  • four stages of conquest

    • darius iii (334 - 330)

    • inland provinces of persian empire (329 - 327)

    • failed attempt to conquer india (327 - 325)

    • return and death (325 - 323)

  • died from excessive drinking at babylon (june 323

    • literally the end of an era

    • end of classical, beginning of hellenistic

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zeno of elea

  • early 5th century

  • series of paradoxes used to disprove pythagorean views

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olympic games

  • first olympiad occurred 776 bc

  • only one event (footrace)

  • only greek men could compete but anyone could watch

  • cultural unity

  • heavy events

    • wrestling, boxing, pankration

  • occurred every four years in the summer

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magna graecia

  • southern italy + sicily

  • most popular place to colonize from 8th to 5th century

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  • 480 bc

  • three day battle

  • pass of thermopylae (very narrow)

  • xerxes meant to have a coordinated land-sea attack

    • the naval part was a disaster

    • a greek informant told xerxes of a path above the mountain, allowing his land attack to arrive quickly

    • greeks surrounded and walls breached

      • other greeks fled, but leonidas and the 300 spartans stayed and fought (either spartan king dies or sparta dies)

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  • 480 bc

  • naval battle

    • themistocles vs xerxes

  • decisive victory for the greeks

  • turning point in the war, when it became a stalemate

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  • died during plague of athens (430)

  • didn’t want to conflict with spartans in north attica

    • ordered a retreat behind the walls

  • athenian statesman during peloponnesian war and brilliant orator

  • extended his influence, but never abused his power

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  • 496 - 406 bc

  • 193 plays, 7 survived

  • won contest 24 times

  • oedipus rex

    • can’t escape fate

  • antigone

    • trapped by her own conscience

  • focus on community ⇾ focus on individual

  • earlier archaic world

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  • 460 - 399 bc

  • detailed plague and war

  • societal breakdown

  • no interest in society or culture

    • no illusions of human behavior

  • causes of war

    • complaints and disputes: corinth, aegina, and megara complained abt athenian influences

    • truest allegation: athenian growth during inter-war period + spartan fear

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peace of nicias

  • 421 - 413 bc

  • named after an athenian general

  • not a true peace, more of a cold war

  • alcibiades and the sicilian expedition (415 - 413)

    • absolute disaster

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  • 8th century

  • came back from oracle with the great rhetra

  • foundation of the spartan constitution

  • council of elders

  • contested existence

    • all info abt him comes from the life of lycurgus by plutarch

  • myth of sparta

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  • bound to his fate

  • first preformed around 429 bc

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delian league

  • 478 bc

  • in the beginning, ionian cities would rather be lead by athens rather than sparta

    • soon becomes an athenian empire

  • stated goal: revenge on persia

  • named after the island of delos

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  • 428 - 347 bc

  • star pupil of socrates

  • left athens after socrates' execution

    • apology of socrates

  • started an academy

  • doctrine of forms

    • the physical world is not as real or true as timeless, absolute, unchangeable ideas

  • allegory of the cave

    • also a metaphor for the life and death of socrates

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ionian revolt

  • 499 - 494 bc

  • campaign to capture sardis

  • burned the temple of cybele at sardis (498)

  • ended with the garrison pushing ionians out

  • uprisings in the ionian cities against persian rulers

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oracle of apollo at delphi

  • where apollo killed the python

  • sanctuary was believed to be the center of the world

  • messages of apollo relayed and interpreted by a priestess, the pythia

  • variety of questions brought forth

    • answers needed interpretation

  • consulted for colonization, and any other big political decision

  • dates back to 1400 bc

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