IB Biology Topic 1

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Cell Theory

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Biology

76 Terms

1

Cell Theory

  1. All living things are composed of cells 2.The Cell in the fundamental unit of life

  2. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells

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Striated Muscle

Long Cells, (300 mm), multiple nuclei, questions cell theory

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3

Acetate Fungal Hyphae

challenges idea that cell is a single unit, multi-nucleated, and continuous cytoplasm. Cell walls composed of Chitin

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giant algae

challenges that notion that cells must be small, and simple in structure. Size of 5-100mm and complex in form.

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response

Living things can respond to and interact with the environment

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Homeostasis

The maintenance and regulation of internal cell conditions, e.g. water and pH

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Growth

Living things can grow/change

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excretion

removal of metabolic waste

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reproduction

living things produce offspring, sexually or asexually

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nutrition

feeding by either the synthesis of organic molecules (e.g. photosynthesis) or the absorption of organic matter

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SA to Volume Ratio

A larger SA:Vol ratio can mean that a cell can act more efficiently. For every unit of volume that requires nutrients or produces waste. There is more membrane to serve it

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How to maximize SA to Vol ratio?

Cells divide, They use membranes to carry out processes, organs will fold up to maximize the ratio

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Rate of Metabolism

a function of mass/volume

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emergent properties

when things are added more properties arise

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specialized cells

All specialized cell and the organs constructed are from differentiation

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Stem Cells

unspecialized cells that can differentiate into many cell types - Embryonic - Cord Blood - Adult (bone marrow)

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Totipotent

Can differentiate into any cell

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pluripotent

Can differentiate into many cells

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multipotent

can differentiate into a few closely related cells

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unipotent

Can regenerate,but only into associated cell type

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Stagardt's Macular Distrophy

A recessive condition for the eyes, stem cells are treated to become retinal cells. Cells attach to the retina and improves central vision

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Lukemia

Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are harvested from bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord blood Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used to destroy the diseased white blood cells New white blood cells need to be replaced with healthy cells. HSCs are transplanted back into the bone marrow HSCs differentiate to form new healthy white blood cells

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Embryonic Stem Cell Structure

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Prokaryote Cell Structure

approximately 0.5 μm

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Prokaryotic Reproduction

Asexually through binary fission.

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Steps of Binary Fission

  1. Two loops attach to membrane

  2. Elongation and pinches off

  3. Two identical cells

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Properties of Prokaryotes

Their DNA is not enclosed in within a membrane and forms on circular Chromosome Their DNA is free; it is not attached to proteins They lack membrane-bound organelles. Ribosomes are complex structures within the plasma membrane, but they have no exterior membrane Their cell wall is made up of a compound called peptidoglycan They usually divide by binary fission, a simple form of cell division They are characteristically small in size, usually between 1 and 10 µm

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Eukaryote Cell Structure

1 micrometer

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Nucleus

Generally Spherical with a double membrane. Pores and holes are present. Contains Chromosomes.

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Mitochondion

Has a smooth outer membrane. Folds are cristae. Variable Shape. Site of ATP production by aerobic energy

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Free Ribosomes

80S ribosomes. No membrane, appear as dark granules in cytoplasm. Synthesizes proteins to function in cytoplasm.

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Consists of Flattened membrane sacs (cisternae). Located near nucleus. 80S ribosomes are attached to outside of cisternae rEr synthesizes transported proteins by vesicles to golgi for modification

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Golgi Apparatus

Contains cisternae No attached ribosomes often sited close to plasma membrane shorter and more curved than the rER. modifies proteins from the rER , the repackaged in vesicles

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Vesicles

A single membrane with fluid Small Transport Materials inside cell

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Lyosomes

Spherical with single membrane Golgi vesicles Digestive enzymes from breakdown of: food unwanted organelles cell itself High concentration of enzymes, cause this to stain heavily and hence appear dark on micrographs

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Vacuoles

Single Membrane with fluid inside Plant cells vacuoles are large and permanent often occupying cell volume In animals vacuoles are smaller and used for various other reasons

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Flagellum

Thin projection from cell surface. Contain microtubules Used to move cell

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Cillia

Thin projections from cell surface Contain Microtubules Used to either move cell or the move the fluids next to the cell

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Microtubules

Small Cylindrical fibers Have a variety of functions, part of flagella. Cell division

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Centrioles

Nine triple miroctubules manly found in animal cells not vascular plants of fungi

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Chloroplast(plant only)

Many, but not all plant cells contain chloroplasts Inside are thylakoids Flattened membrane Shape is variable,but usually ovoid Site of photosynthesis and hence where glucose is produced Starch grains may be present if photosynthesis is quick

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Cell Wall (plants only)

extracellular secreted by plants permeable Strong Hard to Digest

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Ribosomes in Prokaryotic

70S

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Ultrastructure

is all the structures of a biological specimen that are at least 0.1nm in their smallest dimension

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Phospholipid Structure (Words)

Hydrophillic Head Hydrophobic Tail

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Emergent Property of Phospholipid

Heads are wet and tails are dry

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Phospholipid Bilayer

is one way that the tails are removed from water

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Plasma Membrane Structure

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Integral Proteins

Permanently embedded many go all the way through and are polytopic, some are monotopic

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Polytopic

Many Surfaces

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Peripheral Proteins

Temporary association and are monotopic

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oligosaccharide

sugar chain attached. Cell recognition by immune system as hormone receptors

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T in Tracie

Transport

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R in Tracie

Receptors

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A in Tracie

Anchorage

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C in Tracie

Cell Recognition

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I in Tracie

Intercellular Joinings

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E in Tracie

Enzymatic Activity

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Transportation

Protein Channels and Pumps

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Receptors

Peptide based hormones

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Anchorage

Cytoskeleton attachments and extracellular matrix

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cell recognition

MHC proteins and antigens

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Intercellular joinings

Tight Junctions and plasmodesmata

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Enzymatic Activity

Metabolic pathways

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Cholestrol

Makes phospholipids pack more tightly and regulates fluidity and flexibility of memebrane.

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What does presence of cholesterol do?

restricts movement. Disrupts regular packing of the hydrocarbon tails. This increases flexibility

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Signer- Nicolson

Membrane proteins are varied in size and globular. Such proteins are unable to form continuous layers

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Davson-Danielli

A protein-lipid sandwich. Proteins coat surface. Do not permeate the bylayer.

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Falsification

The fracture occurs along lines of weakness, including the center of membranes. The fracture reveals an irregular rough surface inside the phospholipid bilayer

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Selectively Permeable

Some cannot pass through and different forces

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Diffusion

Net movement of particles from high to low concetration.

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Osmosis

When a cell is submurged water molecules pass through the cell from low to high solute concentration.

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Hypertonic

Higher concentration of solutes

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Isotonic

When the concentrations are equal on both sides

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Hypotonic

lower concentration of solutes

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Facilitated Diffusion

proteins recognize a particular molecule and help it move across the membrane.

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