APUSH Unit 3

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153 Terms

1

mercantilism

Economic policy of England. They wanted to increase profit by using the colonies for raw materials, and creating a monopoly.

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2

Stamp Act 1765

Law passed by Parliament that raised tax money by requiring colonists to pay for an official stamp whenever they bough paper items such as newspapers, licenses, and legal documents

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3

Sons of Liberty

Radical political organization that formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts. Used both peaceful and violent means of protest.

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4

Declaratory Act 1766

Said Britain had complete control over all governments in the colonies and could tax the colonies in any way (Colonists ignored)

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5

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. 4 or 5 colonists killed.

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Tea Act 1773

Allowed the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies without taxes. Colonial merchants were replaced, making colonists angry.

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7

Coercive Acts 1774

  1. Closed Boston ports until destroyed tea was paid for

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8
  1. Stopped town meetings

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9
  1. Appointed a military government for Massachusetts

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10
  1. Trials of government officials would be in England

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11
  1. Forced colonists to accommodate British soldiers.

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12

Boston Port Act

Closed the port of Boston and relocated the customs house so that some important supplies could enter Massachusetts

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13

John Adams

Patriot of the American Revolution, second president of the US. Attended the Continental Congress in 1744 as a delegate from Georgia. Swayed his countrymen to take revolutionary action against England. 1st vice president

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14

Hessians

German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion. Proved good in mechanical sense, but they were more concerned about money than duty.

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15

Loyalists

(Tories). Colonials loyal to the king during the American Revolution

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16

George Washington

Virginian who was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and President of the Constitution Convention. Founding father and first President.

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17

Benedict Arnold

General who began the Revolutionary War on the American side but later switched to the British side. Remembered as an example of betrayal.

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18

rights of Englishmen

Rights to trial by jury, security from unlawful entry into one's home, and no taxation without the consent of Parliament

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19

Regulators

Groups of insurgents in Carolinas who rebelled, didn't pay taxes, opposed corrupt government, and cleared their homeland of outlaw bands of terrorists. Wanted fairer taxation and greater representation.

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20

internal vs external taxation

Taxes based on strictly colonial affairs (EX: property tax) vs Taxes based on mercantile system (EX: trade regulation)

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21

natural (fundamental) rights

Inalienable rights over which government could exercise no control. Life, liberty, happiness

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22

consent of the governed

Idea that government derives its authority by the permission of the people

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23

William Howe

English general who commanded English forces at Bunker Hill, did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning and joined British army for attack on Philadelphia. Offered Congress the choice to surrender with royal pardon or battle against the odds.

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24

Baron von Steuben

Stern Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British

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25

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. Discoveries in electricity, founded Albany Plan

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George Rogers Clark

Frontiersman who led the seizing of three British forts in 1777, British gave north region of Ohio River to Americans. "Washington of the West"

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27

Yorktown

The site where Cornwallis surrendered after the American siege and the British were blocked at the sea

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28

Lafayette

French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War.

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29

Articles of Confederation

1781-1788. First Constitution of the US. (weaknesses- no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)

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30

Northwest Ordinance

Enacted in 1787. One of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. Established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states

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Alexander Hamilton

1789-1795 First Secretary of the Treasury. Advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt

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32

New Jersey Plan

Framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states. Key Points: one house legislature with one vote for each state, the establishment of the acts of Congress as the "supreme law" of the land, and a supreme judiciary with limited power.

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33

Federalists

Supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.

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34

Thomas Hobbs

English philosopher in 1600s who strongly believed in government. Claimed that human beings would naturally compete for territory, resources, and power. Without laws people would live with confusion and fear

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35

sovereignty

Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states

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unitary system

Centralized governmental system in which ultimate authority rests in the hands of the national, or central, government.

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37

concurrent powers

Powers of government exercised independently by both the federal and state governments, such as the power to tax

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38

tactical victory

A simple win on the battlefield. Opposing sides fight and one side wins while the other side is destroyed, captured, or forced to retreat

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39

Declaration of Causes

Document issued by Second Continental Congress to explain why the Thirteen Colonies had taken up arms in what had become the Revolutionary War. Traced controversy back to Great Britain's acts at Lexington.

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40

Richard Henry Lee

Member of Philadelphia Congress. His resolution that the colonies should be free and independent states was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.

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41

nerve center

Principal place of business (like Headquarters)

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42

Germantown

Battle where Howe's troops were in Germantown. Washington tried to force them out of Philadelphia again but was defeated

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43

Bill of Rights

The first 10 amendments to the Constitution

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44

checks and balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power

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45

Charles Beard

Historian who believed that the ideology presented in the Constitution was a result of the economic needs of the land-owning Founding Fathers (rather than philosophical principles). His ideas fell out of favor in the 1950s, when other historians pointed out problems with his research

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46

precedent

A law established by following earlier judicial decisions

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47

customs duties

Taxes on goods brought into the country for sale (tariffs)

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48

strict constructionism

A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take

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49

implied powers

Powers derived from the "Necessary and Proper" or "Elastic" clause

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50

elastic cause

Allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8)

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51

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots. The army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion.

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52

neutrality

A position of not taking sides in a conflict

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53

northwest forts (posts)

Showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation because Britain wouldn't leave when they were told to

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54

Pinckney Treaty 1795

Treaty between the US and Spain. Gave the US the right to transport goods on the Mississippi River and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans

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55

election of 1796

The first real contested presidential election. Federalists support John Adams, Republicans support Thomas Jefferson. Adams wins, Jefferson becomes VP

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56

Sugar Act of 1764

Act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. Increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies

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57

virtual representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

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58

Stamp Act Congress

Meeting held in 1765 in New York with delegates from 9 colonies. The Declaration of Rights was written there. Said that only colonies could tax themselves, they had the right to trial by jury, all Rights of Englishmen, and the Parliament could not tax the colonists.

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59

Charles Townshend

Persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts.

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60

non-importation agreements

Agreements to not buy or sell goods to Britain. Resulted in the British merchants complaining and repealing the Stamp Act

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61

committees of correspondence

Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

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62

Intolerable Acts 1774

Laws passed by England to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party

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63

Massachusetts Government Act

Act in which Massachusetts became a Royal Colony and appointed General Gage the new governor

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64

Administration of Justice Act

Act that allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of in the colonies

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65

Lexington and Concord

These battles initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. As a result, British retreated to Boston.

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66

Tories

British political party that was the opposition to Whigs. (Conservative)

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67

Ticonderoga and Crown Point

In May 1775, Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured British garrisons and secured priceless store of gunpowder and artillery

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68

Thomas Paine

American Revolutionary leader (born in England) and pamphleteer. Supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution

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69

Paxton Boys

Group of Scots-Irish men living in Appalachian hills. Made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764 to protest the lenient way the Quakers treated the Indians, because they wanted protection from Indian attacks.

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70

power of the purse

The ability of colonial legislatures in the 18th century to initiate money bills, specifying the amount to be raised and its uses

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71

protective tariff

Tariff imposed on imports to make them less attractive consumers, protecting domestic industries from foreign competition

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72

Social Contract Theory

Enlightenment idea that government was created as an agreement between social groups as a way of structuring themselves in a mutually beneficial way

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73

circular letter

Written by Samuel Adams in response to the Townshend Acts. Urged colonists to "maintain the liberties of America"

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74

Declaration of Independence

Document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

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75

Battles of Trenton and Princeton

During these battles, Washington crossed Delaware, surprised Hessians at Trenton, and went on to win at Princeton. Gave new hope to Americans after defeats in New York.

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76

Nathaniel Greene

"The Fighting Quaker". The number two man in the Continental Army. Led the army on many campaigns against the British forces.

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77

John Paul Jones

American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792)

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78

John Jay

First Chief Justice of Supreme Court. Played an important role in the establishment of the new government. Involved in drafting of the Constitution and The Federalist Papers.

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79

entail

To involve something, make necessary. Require

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80

Land Ordinance of 1785

Law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.

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81

township system

Rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior

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82

James Madison

"Father of the Constitution". Author of the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Father of the Federalist party and the fourth President.

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83

Great Compromise

Compromise that proposed two houses of Congress: One where a state's population would determine representation, and One where all states were represented equally

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84

Anti-federalists

People who opposed ratification of the Constitution

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85

John Locke

17th century English philosopher. Opposed the Divine Right of Kings and asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.

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86

federal system

System of government in which power is divided between federal and smaller units

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87

enumerated (delegated) powers

Powers specifically given to Congress in the constitution. Included the power to: collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war

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88

John Hancock

American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress

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89

moral victory

A defeat that can be interpreted as a victory on moral terms. For example, the defeated party could have defended their principles

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Olive Branch Petition

Document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain.

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Virginia Resolution

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

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92

The Crisis Papers

Written by Thomas Paine. Was a pep talk for the American people during a low point in the Revolutionary War.

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93

Kings Mountain

1780 battle in North Carolina. Patriots defeated Loyalist militia. Many neutral citizens swung over to patriot side and there was increased dislike of the British

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94

Constitutional Convention

Congress called for states to send delegates to Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation in May 1787. They drafted a new framework that would give greater power to the central government. This document became the Constitution.

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95

ratification

An official approval

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96

Thomas Jefferson

3rd president of the United States. Designed the township system. Favored limited central government.

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97

full funding

Refers to Alexander Hamilton's plan to refinance the national debt. To exchange new government securities for old government securities at their face value despite the fact that many persons holding these securities had purchased them from their original holder for a fraction of their face value

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98

loose constructionism

The idea that the Constitution should be interpreted "loosely" or "broadly. What the constitution did not forbid it permitted.

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99

states' rights

According to the compact theory of the Union, the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution

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100

Federalist party

Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans

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