Gilded Age Vocab

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Alexander Graham Bell

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38 Terms

1

Alexander Graham Bell

a Scottish-born inventor, scientist and engineer who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone

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2

Steel

an alloy of iron and carbon with improved strength and fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron

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3

Pendleton Civil Service Act

passed in 1883, created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage

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4

Populism

the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite

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5

Westward Settlement

expansion of the United States into the territory west of the Mississippi River

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6

The Great Strikes

a series of labor union strikes in the late 1800s, most of which resulted in violence and failed because the owners used extreme tactics to end them, and the government often took the side of the owners against the unions

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7

Americanization

belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens

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8

Homestead Act

1862 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to live on and cultivate it for five years

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9

Railroads

networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds

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10

Immigration

international movement of people to a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle as permanent residents or naturalized citizens

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11

Labor Unions

organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages

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12

Chinese Exclusion Act

(1882) denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate

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13

Andrew Carnegie

a Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892, dominated the American steel industry.

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14

Little Bighorn

a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876)

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15

Trusts

firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly)

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16

Edwin Drake

American pioneer in oil industry; became first to drill for petroleum

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17

Robber Barons

refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages and drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it

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18

Dawes Act

1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans

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19

Sweatshops

a factory or workshop, especially in the clothing industry, where manual workers are employed at very low wages for long hours and under poor conditions.

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20

The Grange Movement

a movement for social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century

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21

Ranching

form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area

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22

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures

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23

Free Silver

political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan

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24

Jane Addams

founder of Settlement House Movement and was first American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom

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25

John D. Rockefeller

an American industrialist and philanthropist who revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy

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26

Tenements

urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers, were often poorly constructed and overcrowded

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27

Social Darwinism

belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle

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28

Tammany Hall

a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism

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29

Child Labor

the use of children in industry or business, especially when illegal or considered inhumane

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30

Patronage

granting favors, giving contracts, or making appointments to office in return for political support

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31

Social Gospel

movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization

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32

Urbanization

an increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements

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33

Jim Crow

laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government

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34

Boss Tweed

leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine

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35

Political Machine

a party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity

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36

Monopoly

the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service

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37

Standard Oil

established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by Rockefeller

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38

Ellis Island

an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States

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