AP World History - Unit 8: Cold War and Decolonization

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Cold War

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59 Terms

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Cold War

Nuclear arms race between US and Soviet Union

  • Lasted from 1945 to early 90s

  • Tried to get the rest of the world to side with them

  • Nuclear arsenals became large enough to wipe out the whole world

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What was a source of tension between US and Soviet Union after WWII

Future security - both wanted their worldview to dominate

  • US: capitalism, democracy

  • USSR: communism/totalitarianism

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Yalta and Potsdam Conferences (1945)

parts of Eastern Europe were divided among Allied forces

  • Soviet Union demanded control of its neighbouring states (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria), which the US disagreed with

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Berlin Blockade (1948)

French, US, British sections of Germany merged into one, while Eastern Germany was under Soviet control - they cut of access to Berlin from Western side

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Berlin Airlift

US flew in resources to trapped Western side until Soviets relented and split Berlin in half - built a wall on their side (Berlin Wall)

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Soviet bloc

East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary

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Western bloc

Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, West Germany, Greece, Turkey

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Truman Doctrine (1947)

US would aid countries threatened by communism (containment) - Western bloc formed military alliance NATO for this

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Iron Curtain

Weaponized lines between Soviet and Western blocs

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Bandung Conference (1955)

leaders from Africa and Asia meet to discuss nonalignment partnerships - accepted investments from US and USSR but didn’t side with either

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Chinese Revolution of 1911

led by Sun Yat-sen after fall of Manchu Dynasty in 1911 - China became more Westernized and powerful

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Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles of the People

nationalism, socialism, democracy

  • Established his own political party for his own goals - the Kuomintang (KMT)

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Chiang Kai-shek

Further established KMT in 1920s after Yat-sen’s death while Japanese and Soviets also struggled to control China

  • US helped drive Japan out, but communists and KMT continued to fight Chinese Civil War for next 4 years

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Mao Zedong

Communist leader of millions of peasants to drive KMT out of China into Taiwan

  • Implemented Great Leap Forward by creating communes (local governments) to achieve a Marxist state - they couldn’t keep up with their agricultural quotas, so they lied about it causing starvation of over 30 million Chinese people

  • Military became his focus and capitalism was implemented into economy - Mao didn’t like it

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Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution

got rid of all Western influences to prevent privileged classes - universities shut down and most worked as farmers from 1960s to 70s

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Republic of China

KMT’s Taiwan that they established after being forced out of China by communists

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People’s Republic of China

Mainland China - Mao Zedong led the largest communist nation in the world

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Deng Xiaoping

New leader after Mao Zedong - focused on restructuring economy, reimplemented education

  • Free-market capitalism elements, property ownership, foreign relations - but still largely communist

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Tiananmen Square Massacre

hundreds of protesters for democratic reform killed by government troops under Xiaoping’s leadership

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Korean War

  • Soviet communist regime in North Korea and US democracy in South Korea

  • North Korea attacked South Korea in 1950 to unite the two countries - United Nations, under General MacArthur, supported South Korea and China supported North Korea

  • armistice didn’t happen until 1953

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Vietnam War

Vietminh nationalists fought France until it was agreed to split the nation into two

  • Communists - North under Ho Chi Minh and Democrats - South under Ngo Dinh Diem

  • Soon war broke out between them - France and US supported South, but eventually the South was taken over by communist Viet Cong fighters, which looked very bad for US

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Genocide in Cambodia

  • Communism took over Cambodia and communist faction Khmer Rouge took over the government

  • goal to get rid of professional class an religious minorities led to 2 million deaths by the government

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Platt Amendment

US remained involved in Cuban affairs after Spanish-American War

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Batista Dictatorship (1939-1959)

Dictatorship in Cuba supported by US until peasants began revolting in 1956 under leadership of Fidel Castro

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Cuban Revolution (1959)

Fidel Castro leads peasants to overthrow the Cuban dictatorship

  • Castro promoted democracy but immediately established a communist dictatorship instead, so the US imposed economic bans on trade with Cuba

  • strengthened Cuba’s ties with Soviets instead

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Bay of Pigs Invasion

Organized by US with a small force of Cuban exiles, authorized by President Kennedy, to overthrow Castro - they were immediately captured

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Cuban Missile Crisis

Soviets response to US Bay of Pigs Invasion was to install their missiles in Cuba

  • US found out and established a navel blockade around the island

  • Soviets eventually backed down when US agreed to not invade Cuba - closest brush with nuclear war

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Democratization in Latin America

US’s capitalistic destruction of resources in Latin America stirred radical political parties in Mexico, Peru, Venezuela, Brazil

  • Only in 2000 did Mexico have first multi-party election - opposition

  • Reliance on export economies has resulted in poor domestic economies and debt

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Poland’s Separation from Soviet Union

A Solidarity movement under Lech Walesa brought thousands of workers wanting reform of communist economic system

  • Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Solidarity member, became PM in first open elections

  • Communism fell in 1990, Lech Walsea become president, and economy improved swiftly

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Germany’s Separation from Communism

  • Decline of communism in Soviet bloc led to East Germany cutting ties with Soviets

  • Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989 and East and West reunified

  • Germany now focused on peace and economic reform instead of violence

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Soviet Union Collapses

  • Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1986 and urged restructuring of Soviet economy - elements of private ownership instituted, nuclear arms treaties with US

  • When Poland and other former Soviet nations separated from USSR, Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991

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What caused the Cold War to end?

Dissolving of Soviet Union in 1991

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New Russia Democracy

looked like a perfect federal state, but their abrupt intro to democracy and capitalism led to corruption, high unemployment, poverty, widespread crime

  • First president, Boris Yeltsin

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Vladamir Putin

Russian president, took over from Boris Yeltsin in 1999

  • former KGB agent

  • Has caused significant unrest in relations with other nations

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Indian National Congress

mostly Hindu - established in 1885 to increase rights of Indians under colonial rule

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Amritsar Massacre (1919)

319 Indians killed by the British during a peaceful protest - catapulted resistance

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Independence Won by India

Britain granted independence to India after WWII

  • separated the subcontinent into three parts: India (Hindu), and Pakistan (Muslim) in two parts

  • Many died by religious persecution as they migrated across religious lines - created international conflict between Pakistan and India

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African National Congress

established in 1912 in South Africa to oppose European colonialism

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Why was it difficult for Africa to declare independence from Europe?

Colonialism caused many Africans to be undereducated with limited skills to build productive, independent nations and European influence had caused major destruction in social dynamics

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Algeria Independence

fought war for independence against France from 1954-1962 and eventually won

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Nigeria Independence

negotiated their freedom from Britain

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Ghana Independence

negotiated their freedom from Britain

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Kenya Independence

negotiated constitution with Britain

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Angola Independence

overthrew colonial government causing civil wars

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Congo Independence

overthrew colonial government causing civil wars

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African Union

53/54 of African nations

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Rwanda Genocide

Conflict between Tutsi and Hutu groups (Tutsi, 15% of pop., governed the Hutu) caused ethnic strife, genocide, and human rights violations after colonial authorities left

  • Hutu revolted and killed as many as 800000 Tutsis over 100 days of genocide

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Apartheid in South Africa

  • 1923: segregation established and enforced

  • 1926: Black people banned from certain occupations

  • 1948: system of apartheid (racial separation) established - Black people forced into the worst parts of the country and city slums

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Nelson Mandela

leader of African National Congress in 1950s determined to abolish apartheid

  • jailed in 1964 due to protesting

  • released in 1990 - first president elected in a free and open election

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Sharpeville Massacre (1960)

67 protesters against South African apartheid killed

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Creation of Modern Israel

During WWI, Zionists (Jewish nationalists) convinced Arthur Balfour (Britain’s foreign secretary) to issue Balfour Declaration of 1917: declared that Jewish people had right to live in Palestine, without displacing current Palestinians

  • Many Jews came into Palestine when escaping Hitler in the 30s

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Jewish State in 1948

Two Palestines, one for Jews and one for Muslims, officially created

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1948 Arab-Israeli War

Muslims attack Israel as seen as they are given an official state

  • Israel fought back and eventually controlled most of Palestine, while Jordan held remaining portions (West Bank)

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Six-Day War (1967)

Israelis taking over all of Palestine - West Bank, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip (Egypt), Golan Heights (Syria)

  • Palestinians are still without their own nation

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Palestine Liberation Organization

dedicated to reclaiming land and Palestinian state

  • has been unsuccessful in negotiating a homeland

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Palestine and Israel Current Relations

Intense division, military violence, and terrorism still exists between the groups and no advancements have been made

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1979 Iranian Revolution

  • Before Revolution, Westernization was introduced to the nation and rights of women increased drastically which angered Islamic fundamentalists

  • Fundamentalists ousted the current shah and went back to a strictly conservative theocracy

  • Human rights advancements were reversed and women went back to traditional roles

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Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)

Iraq invaded Iran over border disputes - Iraq received quiet support from US

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Global Oil

Middle East was sitting on more than two-thirds of world’s oil reserves and multinational corporations rushed to gain drilling rights in 20th century

  • Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, and Iraq earn billions annually oil leading to their nations being some of the most advanced in the world

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